Power and Control: Education -1- Class

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Social class and educational attainment
Topic 1
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Charlton (2008) - Innate ability
Working class people have lower IQs than those from wealthy backgrounds and should not expect to win places at top univerities.
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Saunders (1996) - Innate ability
Whether you are bright or not is largely dependent on your genetic inheritance.
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Bourdieu - Cultural deprivation
Middle class families can afford activities which help children to improve their linguistic and cultural competence. This helps them to achieve more highly in education.
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Bourdieu - Cultural differences
Higher class families can afford the high culture (e.g. polo, ballet) and pass it on to their children, this is known as cultural reproduction.
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Cultural Deprivation Theory - Cultural deprivation
Those at the bottom of the class system are deprived of important values, attitudes, experiences and skills which are essential for educational success. Home life lacks stimulation needed for academic success (e.g. books).
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Bernstein (1960s) - Cultural deprivation
Created the theory of: restricted code (working class) elaborate code (middle class)
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Douglas (1964) - Cultural differences
Parental interest was the main reason for middle class students out-performing working class students.
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Douglas (1964) - Cultural differences Criticisms
Feinstein (2003): Supports Douglas' view but judged that parental educational interest was based on attendance at parents evenings was not valid. Parents may not be able to attend because they work anti-social hours.
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Plummer (2000) - Cultural differences
'Failing working class girls': Working class students do not want academic success, if they do, they will feel socially isolated from their own families. Working class girls in grammar schools felt isolated for not being able to afford study aids...
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Plummer (2000) - Cultural differences Continued
Academic success for working class students meant 'learning to be middle class'.
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Sugarman (1970) - Cultural differences
Working class: Fatalism (acceptance of social position); present-term orientation; 'Them and us' attitude; immediate gratification (leave school a.s.a.p.).
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Sugarman (1970) - Cultural differences Continued
Upper Classes: Taking control (meritocracy); longer-term thinking and planning; climbing social ladder is encouraged; deferred gratification (staying in education has bigger rewards).
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Smith and Noble (1995) - Material factors
Education divides: Barriers to learning include family income = insufficient funds for uniform, study aids, nutrition etc. Also overcrowded housing, family stress and the cost of higher and further education effect educational attainment.
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Smith and Noble (1995) - Material factors Continued
Schools experience this poverty when attempting to fundraise.
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Affluence of the middle class - Material factors
Evidence shows that middle class parents can afford: entance exams; houses in a better catchment area (house prices in catchment areas for high performing state schools can be up to 20% higher than those in other areas close by).
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Keddie (1973) - In school factors
Working class students are put in lower sets and therefore they don't gain access to all the resources and knowledge which produce success at the end of the course.
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Gillborn and Youdell (2001) - In school factors
Setting is based on the teacher's perception of the student. Working class students in the lower set and upper/middle class students in the higher set.
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Hargreaves (1967) - In school factors
Labelling students as worthless can lead to deviance to gain social status from peers. This is as a result of the schools actions.
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Becker (1977) - In school factors
Teachers label students as 'ideal' (middle class teacher opinion). This is based on the student's initial appearance in the first 5 minutes (this includes ability and behaviour) even though it may be false.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Working class people have lower IQs than those from wealthy backgrounds and should not expect to win places at top univerities.

Back

Charlton (2008) - Innate ability

Card 3

Front

Whether you are bright or not is largely dependent on your genetic inheritance.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Middle class families can afford activities which help children to improve their linguistic and cultural competence. This helps them to achieve more highly in education.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Higher class families can afford the high culture (e.g. polo, ballet) and pass it on to their children, this is known as cultural reproduction.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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