Population Flashcards

WITHOUT CASE STUDIES

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1. What is the world's population increasing at?
An exponential rate.
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2. What is birth rate?
The number of live babies born per thousand of the population per year.
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3. What is death rate?
The number of deaths per thousand of the population per year.
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4. What is natural increase?
The population grows. The birth rate is higher than the death rate.
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5. What is natural decrease?
The population shrinks. The death rate is higher than the birth rate.
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6. What is the population of a country also affected by? And the definition.
Migration. The movement of people from one area to another area.
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7. What are the 5 stages of population growth represented by?
The Demographic Transition Model
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8. What is stage 1 on the DTM?
Birth rate: High and fluxuating, Death rate: High and fluctuating, Population growth rate: Zero, Population size: Low and steady
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9. What is stage 2 on the DTM?
Birth rate: High and steady, Death rate: Rapidly falling, Population growth rate: Very high, Population size: Rapidly increasing.
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10. What is stage 3 on the DTM?
Birth rate: Rapidly falling, Death Rate: Slowly falling, Population growth rate: High, Population size: Increasing
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11. What is stage 4 on the DTM?
Birth rate: Low and fluxuating, Death rate: Low and fluxuating, Population growth rate: Zero, Population size: High and steady.
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12. What is stage 5 on the DTM?
Birth rate: Slowly falling, Death rate: Low and fluxuating, Population growth rate: Negative, Population size: Slowly falling.
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13. What type of countries are in the earlier/later stages of DTM?
Poorer/Richer
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14. What is the population structure of a country?
How many people there are of each age group in the population and how many there are of each sex.
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15. What is the population structure in Stage 1?
Birth rate is high, no contraception and many children die. Death rate is high, poor healthcare. Population structure - life expenctancy low, population made up of young people. Wide base, Narrow top.
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16. What is the popuation structure in stage 2?
Birth rate is high, no use of contraception, economy based on farming, people have children to help on farms. Death rate falling, improved healthcare. Population structure - life expectancy increased, more young than old. Wide base and equal jumps up
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17. What is the population structure in stage 3?
Birth rate falling, emancipation of women (right place in society), more people work, use of contraception. Death rate falls, medical advances. Population structure - much longer life expectancy. Equal amount of children to adults.
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18. What is the population structure in stage 4?
Birth rate is low, urbanisation, less money for having children (people want thigns for themselves), population structure - life expectancy high, more people living longer. More adults than children but not extreme.
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19. What is the population structure in stage 5?
Birth rate low and falling, less money for childrem (dependant elderly), Population structure - many more older than younger and narrow pyramid.
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20. What are the social impacts of poulation growth?
1) Healthcare cannot cope. 2) Children have to work, miss out on education. 3) Not enough housing, overcrowed settlements. 4) Health problems due to overcrowed settlements (sewers) and food shortages.
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21. What are the economic impacts of population growth?
1) Not enough jobs for everyone, unemployment increases. 2) Increased poverty because more people bron into poor countries .
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22. What are the political impacts of population gowth?
1) Government focuses on policies for young people eg education and heathcare. 2) Fewer older people - dont focus on pensions. 3) Government make policies to control population growth.
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23. Explain birth control programmes.
Reduce birth rate. Laws about how many children a family can have. Governent offer free contraception and sex education. Population doesnt get any bigger. Sustainable.
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24. Why are birth control systems sustainable?
There wont be many more people using up resources today, so there will be some left for future generations.
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25. Explain immigration laws.
Control immigration (people moving to the country to live there permanently). Limit the number of people allowed to immigrate. Selective about who they allow in (eg, people that are of child bearing age).
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26. Why are immigration laws sustainable?
They slow down population growth.
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27. What is a population structure of an ageing population?
More older people than younger people. Few people being born and more people surviving to old age.
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28. Which countries are the ones with an ageing population? Which stage of development are they in?
Richer countries, stage 5.
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29. What does it mean when the older population is dependant?
The older people (over 65) are supported by the working population (16-64). This imeans they are dependant on them. Ageing population has a higher number who are dependant.
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30. What are the economic impacts of an ageing population?
1) Working population pay tax - used for state pensions and services like care homes. Taxes would need to go up. 2) Economy would grow slowly, less money spent on things to help economy grow eg education and business.
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31. What are the social impacts of an ageing population?
1) Healthcare stretched more 2) People need to spend more time as unpaid carers, less lesuire time and more stressed and worried. 3)Have fewer children, cant afford when looking after relatives. Drop in birth rate 4) Lower pension, retire later.
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32. Explain the strategy of encouraging children to cope with an ageing population
Encouraging larger families - cash rewards (Italy), child benefit (UK). this will increase number of young people, larger working population to pay taxes and support elderly.
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33. Explain encouraging immigration of young people to cope with an ageing population
Encouraging immigration of younger people from other countries. Increases working population so more people to pay taxes.
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34. Why are these two strategies (encouraging children and immigration) not sustainable?
They increase the population size - lead to over population.
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35. Explain the strategy of raising the retirement age to cope with an ageing population
People stay in work longer and contribute to state pensions and personal pensions for longer. Claim state pension for shorted amount of time.
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36. Explain the strategy of raising taxes to cope with an ageing population.
Raising taxes for the working population will increase the amount of money availiable to support the ageing population.
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37. Why are these two strategies (raising retirement age and taxes) sustainble?
Help towards sustainble development because they will reduce the impacts of an ageing population without increasing the population size.
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38. What is immigration and emigration?
Immigration - people move into the area (immigrants). Emigration - When people leave the area (emigrants).
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39. Can you migrate between countries and also within countries?
Yes.
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40. What are push factors?
The things about a person's place of origin (where they origanally lived) that make them decide to move.
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41. Give some examples of push factors.
Usually negative things: no jobs, war and natural disasters.
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42. What are pull factors?
Pull factors are things about a person's destination that attracts them .
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43. Give some examples of pull factors.
Positives: job opportunities and better standard of living.
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44. What are the positive and negative impacts of migration on the source country (where they come from)?
Postive) Reduce demand on services, money sent back to source country by emigrants. Negative) Labour shortage, skills shortage and an ageing population. This is because these things usually occur to young people and young people migrate mostly.
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45. What are the positive and negative impacts of migration on the recieving country?
Positive) Increased labour force and migrants pay taxes and help to fund services. Negative) Competition for jobs (tension and conflict), increased demand on services (overcrowding in schools and hospitals), not all money earnt spent in country.
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46. Where can people who come from a country in the EU, work and live?
Anywhere else in the EU.
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Card 2

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2. What is birth rate?

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The number of live babies born per thousand of the population per year.

Card 3

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3. What is death rate?

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Card 4

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4. What is natural increase?

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Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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5. What is natural decrease?

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