Urbanisation Flashcards


1. What is urbanisation?
The growth in the proportion of a country's population living in urban areas.
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2. Where is urbanisation happening?
All over the world - more than 50% of the worlds population are living in urban areas.
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3. Most of the population in .............. countries already live in urban areas.
Richer eg. more than 80% of the UK's population live in urban areas.
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4. Not many of the population in ............... countries currently live in urban areas.
Poorer eg. around 25% of the population of Bangladesh live in urban areas.
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5. What is rural-urban migration?
The movement of people from the countryside to the cities. Causes urbanisation in both rich and poor countries.
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6. Give some reasons why people want to move to the city in poorer countries.
Often a shortage of services in rural areas like education, water and power. Standard of living referred to as better in urban areas. More jobs in urban areas. Industry attracted to cities because there is a hgiher workforce and better infrastructure
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7. Why do people want to move to the city in richer countries?
In the 18th and 19th century industrial and agricultural revolutions took place. Machinery began to replace farm labour in rural areas.Moved for work. People moved to country from inner cities - they are now encouraged to go back.
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8. Why has good healthcare and high birthrate in cities caused urbanisation?
Normally young people move to find work. These people have children in the cities, increase proportion of population living in urban. Better healthcare means people live longer, increasing proportion in the cities.
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9. What are the four main parts of a city?
CBD, Inner city, the suburbs and the rural-urban fridge.
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10. Describe the CBD.
CBD - Central Business Distict.Found right in the centre of a city. Commercial centre with shops and offices. Transport links meet. High land values and competition for space so buildings very tall, high building density. Few people live here.
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11. Describe the inner city.
Found around the CBD. Mix of poorer quality housing (high rise tower blocks) and older industrial buildings. Run down and deprived. Also newer housing and industry where derelict land has been cleared and developed.
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12. Describe the suburbs.
Housing found towards the edge of the city. Land here is cheaper and still close enough to commute into the centre for work. In the UK middle class familys tend to live here. Nicer environment and there's less crrime and pollution.
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13. Describe the rural-urban fringe.
Right at the edge of the city. Both urban land uses and rural land uses. Here you find larger, fewer houses.
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14. How are the cities in places like France and Sweden different to the Uk?
The inner city areas are where the wealthier middle-classes live and the suburbs tend to be more deprived areas.
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15. Explain how the land use of a city has changed over time.
Recently, shopping centres build on edge of cities - shops in CBD close down. Inner city tower blocks removed and replaced with housing estates in the fringe. New housing is often built on brownfield sites (cleared derelict land).
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16. What are some of the problems in many urban areas in richer counties?
Shortage of good quality housing. Run down CBD. Traffic conjestion and pollution from cars. Ethnic segregation.
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17. Explain urban renewal schemes.
Government strategies first widely used in the 1990s. Encourage investment in new housing, services and employment in derelict inner city areas. Eg. Dockleans development in liverpool - docks converted into high quality housing with local services.
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18. Explain 'new towns'.
Built to cope with the overpopulation of other cities and towns. Shortage of housing. Eg. Milten Keynes 1970.
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19. Explain relocation incentives.
Encourage people living in large council houses - they dont need to live in a big house or city to move out of urabn areas. Freeing up more houses in urban areas. Eg. Scheme run by London council to move elderly out of large houses in the city.
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20. What is being done to help CBDs that are run down?
Pedestrianising areas (stopping car access) to make it safer and nicer for shoppers. Improving access with better public transport links and better car parking. Converting derelict warehouses into smart new shops etc. improving public areas - green.
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21. What does initial goverment investment encourage?
Businesses to return attracting more customers, which attracts more businesses etc. Eg. The London Docklands.
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22. How has increased car use impacted cities?
More air pollution, damage to health. More road accidents. More traffic jams and congestion. Air pollution also damaging buildings.
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23. Give some examples of strategies to reduce traffic and its impacts.
Improve public transport, people use cars less. Reducing congestion, air pollution and accidents. Increase parking charges, discourages car use. Bus lanes, speed up bus services. Pedestrianisation of centres, remove traffic from main streets.
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24. Give some reasons for ethnic segregation.
People choose to live close to others with the same background and religion who speak the same language. People live near services that are imporant to their culture (places of worship). People often restricted in the same way so live in same areas.
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25. Are the strategies to support the multi-cultural nature of urban areas meant to force people together?
No, they are so everyone knows and has equal access to all services like healthcare and education.
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26. Give some examples of strategies to do this.
Everyone has access to information about services (leaflets in different languages). Communication between all parts of the community (people of ethic communities make decisions). Providing interpreters. Suitable services (same sex doctors etc)
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27. What are squatter settlements?
Settlements that are built illegally in and around cities for people that cannot afford proper housing.
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28. Which type of countries are squatter settlements the problem.Give examples.
Poorer countries like Sao Paulo and Mubai.
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29. Where have most of the inhabitants come from?
Countryside to City - rural-urban migrants.
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30. Describe living conditions in Squatter Settlements.
Badly built, overcrowded, dont have basic services (sewers/electricity), life hard and dangerous, lack policing, medical services and fire fighting. Life expectancy lower. Houses built of waste material like plastic sheets. Long hours, small pay.
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31. Explain 'Self Help Schemes' in squatter settlements.
Involve the government and local people working together to improve life. Government supplies materials and local people build themselves homes. Money saved on labour goes towards services.
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32. Explain 'Site and Service Schemes' in squatter settlements.
People pay a small amount for rent of land and borrow money to build or improve a house on their poly. Rent money provides money to provide basic services. Eg. The Dandora scheme in Nairobi.
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33. Explain 'Local Authority Schemes' in squatter settlements.
Funded by local governments improving temporary accommodation built by residents. Eg. Rio spent $120 on the Favela-Bairro project.
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34. What are afew of the environmetal problems caused by industrialisation and urbanisation?
Waste disposal problems - people in the city produce alot of waste. Damage to health and environment. Air pollution - Comes from burning fuel and factories. Water pollution - water carries pollutants from cities into rivers. Health +wildlife harmed.
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35. Why do poorer countries struggle to dispose of large amounts of waste?
Money-can't afford to dispose of waste safely eg. toxic waste has to be treated. More urgent problmes to spend on. Infrastructure - poor roads so rubbish cannot be collected. Scale - too much of it!
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36. What are the effects of air pollution?
Lead to acid rain, damaging buildings and vegetation. Health propblems like bronchitis. Some pollutants destroy the ozeone layer, which protects us from UV rays.
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37. What can be done to manage the air pollution?
Air quality standards for industries and constantly monitoring levels of pollutants to check they're safe.
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38. What are the effects of water pollution?
Kills fish and other aqautic animals, disrupts food chains. Harmful chemicals can build up in the food chain and poison humans eating fish. Contamination of water supplies with sewage can spread diseases like typhoid.
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39. What can be done to manage water pollution?
Building sewage treatment plants and passing laws forcing factories to remove pollutants from their waste water.
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40. What makes mananging pollution hard in poorer countries?
Requires alot of money and requires lots of different resources. Skilled workers and good infrastructure.
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41. What does sustainable living mean?
Doing things in a way that lets the people living now have the things that they need but without reducing the ability of people in the future meeting their needs. Behaving in a way that doesnt irreversibly damage the environment or use up resources.
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42. What will happen if we continue only using fossil fuels as fuel?
Willl add up to climate change and eventually we will use them all up. In the future there wont be any and the environment will be damaged. It is unsustainalbe.
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43. What are the five things that can be done in a city to make it more sustainable?
Schemes to reduce waste and safely dispose of it. Conserving natural environments and historic buildings. Building on brownfield sites. Building carbon-neutral homes. Creating an efficient public transport system.
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44. Explain 'schemes to reduce waste and safely dispose of it'.
More recycling means fewer resources are used, Less waste produced (reducing landfill). Landfill is unsustainable as it wastes resources that could be recycled. Space will run out. Safely disposing of toxic waste helps prevent pollution.
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45. Explain 'conserving natural environments and historic buildings'.
Historic buildings, natural environments and open spaces are classed as resources. This means that if they get used up today, they wont be there for the future. Buildings and natural environments can be conserved/protected for the future.
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46. Explain 'building on brownfield sites'.
Brownfields sites are spaces that are not used anymore and have become derelict. If we use these spaces for new buildings then green spaces are not being used up. Green spaces will be there for the future. Appearence of brownfield is improved.
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47. Explain 'building carbon-neutral homes'.
Generating as much energy as they are using. Environmental friendly using renewable energy resources like solar panels. Eg. BedZED. More homes created without pollution
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48. Explain 'creating an efficient public transport system'.
Fewer cars on road. Pollution, accidents, congestion reduced. Using less fuel so resources saved. Also less pollution - reducing climate change.
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49. When are people more likey to support sustainabilty systems?
When they are able to make the decisions about them. Including people in the schemes make them more likey to suceed.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


2. Where is urbanisation happening?


All over the world - more than 50% of the worlds population are living in urban areas.

Card 3


3. Most of the population in .............. countries already live in urban areas.


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


4. Not many of the population in ............... countries currently live in urban areas.


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


5. What is rural-urban migration?


Preview of the front of card 5
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