Political philosophy: Rights

Rights in political philosophy

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Rights
entitle you to certain things and often is an obligation on another person
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Positive Rights
Right to be provided with something. Generally creates an obligation on someone
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Negative Rights
Right to not be subjected to something. Generally prohibits other's actions
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Joseph Raz
1. Who holds the right. 2. What justifies the right. 3. What is it a right to. 4. Who holds corresponding duties.
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Natural rights
certain rights we have by virtue of being god's creation. Are self evident and inalienable.
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Locke
law of nature is to preserve mankind. From this we get natural rights to life, liberty and property.
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Bentham
Natural rights = Nonsense on stilts. Not inalienable: rights can clash and over rule one another. Not self evident: legal rights have empirical evidence, natural rights don't.
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Utilitarianism
basic rights we hold are those that MAXIMIZE UTILITY
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J S Mill
Actions are RIGHT if they promote happiness but WRONG if they promote oppostie.
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Criticisms of utilitarianism
Violates rights as much as it preserves them: in the pretense of maximizing utility Minority groups will be ignored. Certain rights could be taken away if found detrimental to utility e.g. right to free speech.
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Human rights
non-religious, universal rights held by virtue of being human. are MORAL RIGHTS
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Bentham's criticism on Human rights
Avoid nonsense on stilts as grounded by morals. BUT what grounds morals? could say value of human worth is self evident...but is it really? why do we argue if they're morally self-evident? how does one right prioritize another?
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Card 2

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Right to be provided with something. Generally creates an obligation on someone

Back

Positive Rights

Card 3

Front

Right to not be subjected to something. Generally prohibits other's actions

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

1. Who holds the right. 2. What justifies the right. 3. What is it a right to. 4. Who holds corresponding duties.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

certain rights we have by virtue of being god's creation. Are self evident and inalienable.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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