Paper 4 Extended Notes

Ludicrously detailed notes. Useful if you have difficulty with the language in the extracts (like I did). If you're okay just reading the extracts, there isn't much point in looking at this (although you're welcome to, of course).

More concise, exam-ready notes available here: http://getrevising.co.uk/resources/paper_4_notes

HideShow resource information
Preview of Paper 4 Extended Notes

First 1158 words of the document:

Paper 4 ­ Implications
a) Examine the argument and/or interpretation in the passage (30 marks)
b) Do you agree with the ideas expressed? Justify your point of view and
discuss its implications for understanding religion and human
experience (20 marks)
Extract 1 ­ "Godtalk is evidently nonsense" ­A.J. Ayer
Topics:
V erif
ica t
ion Pri
n ci
ple
L ang ua ge
R eligi
o us e xper i
enc e (link
b etween
extr
a ct
s 1 a nd
2)
Paragraph 1
a) C a nno t
pro ve t
h e e x ist ence of
G od,
or
any thi
n g
close
en oug h t o
G o d
to c ount
b) G od i
s not even pr
o b ab l
e refut
ing Swinbur ne
c) If Go d w as
prob able , w e
sh ould
b e
able
to f
ind empirical
evi
d en ce f
or
it
d) If t
h ere
w a s
emp i
ri
c a l
e vi
de nce f
o r
God, we wo uld be
able
to e xpan d up o n
th at
­ g oi
n g
fr
om G o d 's
exi st
ence to
some ot
h er
t
h i
ng s abou t
G od
e) S ome
p eo ple say th a t
b eca use t
h er
e i
s "r
e gu l
a ri
ty
in na t
ure",
G od exist
s
a. C ou l
d wo rk u n de r
WV P
­ you can'
t ob s er
ve
ev eryt
hin g, but
i
f
w ha t
we
can obse rve g ive s e vi
dence f
o r
God
the n t
he D esign a rg ume n t
ca n
be u sed
f) U si
n g
t hi
s evi
de nce t o asse rt
the
e xi
stence
of God i
s act
u al
ly
o nl
y e qui
v a l
e nt
to
as se r
ti
n g tha t
t
he re is t
h e requi
red r
e gulari
ty i
n nature
an d n o
re l
igi
ou s
p erson wo uld on l
y b e
tr yi
ng t
o assert
t
ha t
there i
s reg ul
ari
ty
in n atu r
e an d
that
i
s w hy they bel
ie ve i n
G od
g) R el
igio us
p erso n w o u ld
sa y t
h at
when
tal
ki ng a bout
G od ,
t
he y ar
e r
eferrin g
to
a t
rans cen d ent
bei
n g
w ho
ma y
b e
know n t
h rou gh "ce r
tai
n emp ir
ica l
ma nif
e stations" but c an '
t
be def
ined by
the se ma ni
fes t
ati
o ns
h) In
th i
s cas e the
ter
m `
g od '
is
me taphysi
cal
a. Me t aphy si
ca l
u tt er
an ces "cannot
be ei
th er t
rue
or f
alse "
b. A n y
sent ence t
h at
a ttempts
to descr i
be t
he
na ture
of
a
tr ans cende nt
god can poss e ss
"an y l
it
eral
si
g ni
fi
ca nc e" ­
V P ,
st
a t
eme nt
i
s
me a ning l
ess
Paragraph 2
a) A gn ost i
c:
h olds
that e x ist
en ce of
G od
is
a p os sibi
li
ty
i n
w hi
ch
th ere
is
no
g ood
re aso n ei
t her t o
b el
ieve
or
disbeli
eve
ath eist
:
h olds i
t
is
p r
ob able th at
G o d do es no t
e xi
st
b) A ll
stateme nts
a bou t G od
b eing
no nsensi
c al
(a s he sho wed i n P 1)
does
n ot
l
e n d su ppo rt
t
o at
he is m or a gnost
ici
sm ­
a ctua ll
y i
nco mp at
ib le wi
th
thes e
b eli
e f
s
c) A the i
st vi
e w
a s non s e n si
ca l
as t
heist
,
be ca use t
o cr
itici
se a
v i
e w
th at
i
s
n ons en si
ca l
is
e qua lly n ons ensical
(
b asi
ca ll
y, in
sa yi
n g `
G od' ,
the
v i
ew
b eco me s n onse nsic a l
)

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Agno sti
c v iew is
th at
we
ca n not
s ay
if G od
exist
s o r
not
( w hi
c h i
s r
ig ht
)
a. B u t doesn '
t say t
hat t
he se nten ces `
ther
e
is a
tra ns cen d en t
g od'
and
`t
h e re
is not a t
ransc en den t
god '
are mea ni
n gl
e s s
b.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

B ut
t
h i
s i
s no good ,
b eca u se
if
h e
had
actu all
y un co vered a ny genuine
i nf
orma t
io n,
h e
w o uld
be abl
e t
o express i
t
(at
lea st t
o a
p oi nt )
­
or he would
b e able
to i
ndicate
h o w h i
s di
s covery
migh t
be emp i r
icall
y d…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

K now l
e dge ­ wh at
i
s rel
igi
ou s
know le d g e?
H ow
do we kno w t
ha t an experi
ence is
f r
o m God
I ntui
ti
o n
­ i
f we i
ntuit that
an experi
e nc e
is f r
om G od ,
ho w ?
Paragraph 1
a) Beli
eve r
kn o ws that G od i
s r
eal
­
ar gu i
n…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Al
so
pr ese n t
w he n we
exp e ri
e nc e other p eo p l
e
as conscious sel
ves wit
h
minds a nd f e el
ing s l
ike ou r o w n
d) Si
milar i
ti
es b etwe e n
int
u i
tiv e aw a r eness of
pe o pl
e and a
b el
ie ver'
s i
n tui
ti
ve
awaren ess o f
Go d…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Paragraph 15
a) Chri
s ti
a ns
li
ke the i
dea o f
kno wing
G od thr
ou g h
int
uit
ion a n d reli
gio u s
exper i
ence ­ a nd
thi
s see ms
to f
it
w i
th
the t
ea c hings
o f
t
h e B i
ble ,
w h ere G o d
i
s some one
w h o
draws
n ea r
t
o huma n i…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

Wa t
c h analogy (
no t
Pa l
ey)
c) Cont
d) Cont
e) Cont
f) Feeli
n g of
certa i
nt y not
w ha t
ma kes us ri
g ht
, eve n t ho ugh
a
feel
ing
o f
cer
tai n t
y might occ ur
w hen w e a re r
ight
Paragraph 24
a) Being ri
g ht
i
s no t
a
qu est
ion of
fe eli
ng r
ig h…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

Those t
e rms
take
fo r gr
an t
ed t
h a t
t
h e re i s
a g enuine
ob j
ec t
o f
exp er
ience
­
beyond the experie ncer
's
me nta l
stat e
­ bu t
t hat
i
s what i
s
be ing questi
o n ed
Paragraph 30
a) Not
en o ugh
to poin t
out
(l
ike
O w en )
t hat w e a ccept
int
uit…read more

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

Tryi
n g
to d e sc r
i be
a n d
a na lys e Chr i
sti
an t
h inki
n g
in a
w a y t
h at l
e n ds i
ts e l
f t
o
an
in t
erpre t at
ion of
th e
w o r
ld and
th e expe r
ienc e s
of huma n li
fe
Paragraph 34
a) But
c entra l
pl
a c e
g i…read more

Page 10

Preview of page 10

Here's a taster:

Easy t
o r
e la t
e t
o
other con trasts of
C hr i
s t i
a n t
h o ugh t
­
s uch a s bel
ief
in bei
ng
bet
ter
th an b eli
ef
about
b) Fai
th r
a th e r t
h an
spe c u latio n,
i
n volveme n t and t r
u s t
r
a t
h er
th a n
detach men t
and
theo…read more

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Philosophy resources:

See all Philosophy resources »See all resources »