PLINY'S PASSAGES ON STOICISM 1st CENTURY AD - Women in Rome

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ARRIA: Who was Arria?
She was the grandmother of FANNIA - a friend of Pliny's. She was a stoic who committed suicide when her husband CAECINA PAETUS was condemned to death (AD 42) by emperor TIBERIUS
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ARRIA: How long ago had the events happened that PLINY talks about in the letter?
"PLINY IS WRITING ABOUT EVENTS THAT HAPPENED MORE THAN HALF A CENTURY EARLIER"
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ARRIA: What earned her a place in the "PANTHEON OF ROMAN MATRONS"?
"HER CHOICE OF A GLORIOUS DEATH OVER LIVING IN WIDOWHOOD IN GREATLY REDUCED CIRCUMSTANCES"
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ARRIA: Who is PLINY'S letter to?
NEPOS
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ARRIA: Why is PLINY writing this letter?
Because he wants to highlight that "THE MOST CELEBRATED WORDS AND DEEDS OF THE MOST ILLUSTRIOUS MEN AND WOMEN ARE NOT ALWAYS THE GREATEST"
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ARRIA: What other thing did Arria do that PLINY thought was "NOBLER" than killing herself after CAECINA PAETUS?
When her son died after both PAETUS and him were sick, she "TOOK CARE OF THE FUNERAL WITHOUT HER HUSBAND'S EVEN KNOWING OF THE DEATH" and pretended for him that their son was "ALIVE AND IMPROVING" and only once left would "GIVE HERSELF TO SORROW"
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ARRIA: What is the example of STOICISM?
Once she had left the room she would "PULL HERSELF TOGETHER AND GO BACK IN WITH A CALM EXPRESSION ON HER FACE" like she had "LEFT HER MOURNING OUTSIDE THE DOOR"
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ARRIA: What did she say when she "PLUNGED" the dagger "INTO HER HEART"
"PAETUS, IT DOESN'T HURT"
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ARRIA: Why does PLINY think that the story of her son is more impressive?
Because when she killed herself, "IMMORTALITY WAS BEFORE HER EYES" and that the hiding of the dead son was "WITHOUT THE PROSPECT OF GLORY AND FAME" as she had to go through the pain of acting "LIKE A MOTHER AFTER HER SON HAD DIED"
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ARRIA: What did PAETUS do to lead to his death?
He was part of SCRIBONIANUS' party in ILLYRIA in the rising against CLAUDIUS and was brought as a prisoner to Rome when SCRIBONIANUS was killed.
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ARRIA: What did Arria beg the solider when PAETUS was about to embark on the ship?
"YOU WILL CERTAINLY ALLOW A MAN OF CONSULAR RANK TO HAVE A FEW SLAVES TO LOOK AFTER HIS FOOD AND CLOTHING. LET ME COME ALONG AND I'LL DO THEIR JOBS MYSELF" but he refused.
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ARRIA: What did Arria do in response to the refusal of the soldier?
She "FOLLOWED BEHIND THE HUGE SHIP IN A TINY FISHING BOAT"
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ARRIA: What did Arria say to SCRIBONIANUS' wife when at the IMPERIAL PALACE offering evidence to the prosecution?
"AM I TO LISTEN TO YOU WHO COULD GO ON LIVING AFTER SCRIBONIANUS DIED IN YOUR ARMS?" - this highlights that her decision was not "SPUR OF THE MOMENT"
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ARRIA: Who tried to convince Arria not to kill herself and what did he say to try do this? What was Arria's response?
Her "SON-IN-LAW" THRASEA said "WOULD YOU WANT YOUR DAUGHTER TO DIE WITH ME IF I WERE TO DIE?" and Arria responded "I WOULD IF SHE LIVED AS LONG AND AS HAPPILY WITH YOU AS I HAVE WITH PAETUS"
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ARRIA: What did Arria say to everyone who was watching her to stop her from killing herself? What did she then do?
"YOU'RE WASTING YOUR TIME. YOU CAN MAKE ME DIE PAINFULLY BUT YOU CANNOT STOP ME FROM DYING" - highlights her persistence. She then "RAN TO THE WALL" where she "BANGED HER HEAD AND FELL DOWN UNCONSCIOUS"
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ARRIA: What did Arria say when she woke up from banging her head? What does PLINY think about the words?
"I TOLD YOU I WOULD DO IT THE HARD WAY IF YOU STOPPED ME FROM DOING IT THE EASY WAY". PLINY asks NEPOS "DON'T YOU THINK THESE WORDS ARE GREATER THAN THE FAMOUS "PAETUS IT DOESN'T HURT" TO WHICH THEY LED?"
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FANNIA: Who was Fannia?
Fannia was the granddaughter of ARRIA and was a friend of PLINY'S whom he clearly treasured
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FANNIA: Who is PLINY writing to?
PRISCUS
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FANNIA: Why is PLINY writing this letter?
Because he is "MOST CONCERNED ABOUT FANNIA'S HEALTH"
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FANNIA: Why is Fannia unwell?
Because she was taking care of A VESTAL VIRGIN called JUNIA ("A RELATIVE") through "ORDER OF THE PRIESTS"
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FANNIA: What happens when a VESTAL VIRGIN has a "SERIOUS ILLNESS"?
They are "OBLIGED" to "LEAVE THE ATRIUM OF VESTA" and are taken into the care of "SOME MATRON" - Fannia "DILIGENTLY PERFORMED THIS DUTY"
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FANNIA: What are Fannia's symptoms?
She has a "CONSTANT FEVER" and "A COUGH THAT IS GETTING WORSE". She is "EMANCIPATED" and "GENERALLY IN DECLINE"
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FANNIA: What does PLINY say about Fannia's "SPIRIT"?
That it is "VIGOROUS" and "WORTHY OF HER HUSBAND HELVIDIUS AND FATHER THRASEA"
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FANNIA: What 4 things does PLINY use to describe Fannia?
1)"WHAT CHASTITY" 2)"WHAT SANCTITY" 3)"WHAT DIGNITY" 4)"WHAT CONSTANCY!"
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FANNIA: What did Fannia do in her life?
"TWICE SHE FOLLOWED HER HUSBAND INTO EXILE, AND THE THIRD TIME SHE HERSELF WAS EXILED ON HIS ACCOUNT"
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FANNIA: What 3 things did Fannia reveal openly when SENICO was on trial for writing "THE LIFE OF HELVIDIUS"?
1) She had asked SENICO to write it 2) She had given SENICO her "HUSBAND'S DIARIES" 3) Her MOTHER didn't know about any of it
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FANNIA: What did Fannia take into exile with her when she "DID NOT UTTER A SINGLE WORD TO REDUCE THE DANGER TO HERSELF"?
She took the exile's "VERY CAUSE" - "THOSE BOOKS WHICH THE SENATE THROUGH THE ... FEAR OF THE TIMES ORDERED SUPPRESSED" because she had "MANAGED TO SAVE THEM" when her "GOODS" were "CONFISCATED"
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FANNIA: What two qualities does PLINY say that Fannia has together that are "RARELY FOUND IN THE SAME PERSON"?
"HOW RESPECTABLE AND AMIABLE AT ONCE"
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FANNIA: Who does PLINY say can "DRAW AN EXAMPLE" from Fannia?
"OUR WIVES" and "MEN TOO" from her "FORTITUDE"
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FANNIA: What does PLINY say about Fannia's "HOUSE"?
That it must be on the "BRINK OF COLLAPSE" "EVEN THOUGH SHE LEAVES DESCENDANTS" - highlighting the importance of having children to be considered a "good" woman
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FANNIA: What does PLINY say that he believes there is "NO HIGHER PRAISE" about Fannia?
That he is "RELIVING THE THE DEATH OF HER MOTHER" and that she was the "GREAT MOTHER OF A GREAT WOMAN"
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CALPURNIA: Who was Calpurnia?
PLINY'S third wife, an orphan and several years his junior.
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CALPURNIA: What were PLINY'S letters to Calpurnia intended for?
They were intended for publication so shouldn't be read as private correspondence, but as representations of his beliefs and attitudes
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CALPURNIA HISPULLA: Who was Calpurnia Hispulla?
His wife's aunt and nearest living female relative
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CALPURNIA HISPULLA: Why does PLINY call Calpurnia Hispulla a "MODEL OF DEVOTION"?
Because she loved her brother with a "TENDERNESS HE RECIPROCATED" so much that she raised his daughter CALPURNIA "AS IF SHE WERE YOUR OWN"
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CALPURNIA HISPULLA: What does PLINY say his wife is worthy of?
"WORTHY OF HER FATHER, HER GRANDFATHER, AND YOU"
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CALPURNIA HISPULLA: What 3 things does PLINY say his wife is thanks to HISPULLA?
1) "HIGHLY INTELLIGENT" 2) "EXTREMELY FRUGAL" 3) "LOVES ME, WHICH IS A SIGN OF CHASTITY" - all the things a Roman man wants from a wife in 1st CENTURY AD Rome
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CALPURNIA HISPULLA: What's the first two things PLINY says CALPURNIA'S "LOVE FOR ME" has made her do?
1) Made her "TAKE UP BOOKS" and "MEMORISE" his writings 2) Shows interest when he starts a "NEW CASE" and is "HAPPY WITH ME WHEN IT'S OVER"
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CALPURNIA HISPULLA: What are the other three things CALPURNIA does out of "LOVE" for PLINY?
1) Has "MESSENGERS TELL HER" how cases going 2) Sits "DISCREETLY BEHIND A CURTAIN" soaking "UP PRAISE" when he reads his work 3) Sings "MY VERSES" on the "LYRE" with "NO INSTRUCTOR"
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CALPURNIA HISPULLA: What does PLINY say is "THE BEST TEACHER OF ALL"
"LOVE" - love was not a concept discussed as much by other writers
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CALPURNIA HISPULLA: What does PLINY say that CALPURNIA loves?
"NOT MY YOUTH OR BODY" but "MY GLORY"
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CALPURNIA HISPULLA: What has HISPULLA done personally for PLINY?
She "HONOURED MY MOTHER IN PLACE OF YOUR OWN" and "HELPED FORM ME SINCE I WAS A CHILD"
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CALPURNIA HISPULLA: What does PLINY say about his relationship with his wife?
That is was "AS IF WE WERE CHOSEN ONE FOR THE OTHER"
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CALPURNIA (1): Why is PLINY writing this letter?
To complain about "MY DUTIES" keeping him away from "ACCOMPANYING YOU TO CAMPANIA" when she was unwell.
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CALPURNIA (1): What does we want to see with his "OWN EYES"?
That Calpurnia is "GETTING STRONGER" and "PUTTING ON SOME WEIGHT" and enjoying the "RETREAT" and the "LUXURIES OF THE REGION"
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CALPURNIA (1): What does PLINY say there is an "ANXIOUS SUSPENSE" in?
"NOT KNOWING ABOUT SOMEONE YOU LOVE DEARLY"
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CALPURNIA (1): What does PLINY do thats "TYPICAL OF FRIGHTENED PEOPLE"?
He fears and imagines "EVERYTHING" and "I SEE WITH MY MIND'S EYE EXACTLY WHAT IT IS I WISH LEAST TO HAPPEN"
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CALPURNIA (1): What does PLINY ask Calpurnia to do?
"EASE MY ANXIETY" and write to him "ONCE A DAY, OR EVEN TWICE" as it will make him "FEEL MORE SECURE" even though as soon as hes "FINISHED THE LETTERS" he will "START WORRYING AGAIN"
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CALPURNIA (2): What has Calpurnia told PLINY that makes him feel gratified for her finding "COMFORT" in "CONSOLATIONS"?
She is "NOT A LITTLE AFFECTED BY MY ABSENCE" and her "ONLY SOLACE IS TO HOLD MY BOOKS" and put them by her "IN MY PLACE"
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CALPURNIA (2): What does PLINY do to find "COMFORT" but ultimately just makes his "LONGING WORSE"?
He reads and rereads "YOUR LETTERS AND PICK THEM UP AGAIN AND AGAIN AS THOUGH I HAD JUST RECEIVED THEM" but this only makes his "LONGING WORSE"
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CALPURNIA (2): Why is the "PLEASURE TINGED WITH PAIN" when PLINY reads the letters?
Because her letters "CONTAIN SO MUCH SWEETNESS" but her "CONVERSATION HOLDS EVEN MORE" but he "NEVERTHELESS" wants her to "KEEP WRITING"
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CALPURNIA (3): What are the two reasons PLINY says he misses Calpurnia in this passage?
1) "FIRST OF ALL, BECAUSE I LOVE YOU" 2) "BECAUSE WE ARE NOT USED TO BEING APART"
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CALPURNIA (3): What does PLINY do at night and then what does he do during the day?
At night he conjures "UP YOUR IMAGE" and during the day when he would "USUALLY VISIT YOU" he describes how his "FEET LITERALLY CARRY ME TO YOUR ROOMS"
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CALPURNIA (3): What is PLINY'S "ONLY RELIEF"?
When he is "TRYING MY FRIEND'S CASES".
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CALPURNIA (3): How does he end his letter?
"MY REST I TAKE IN WORK, MY SOLACE IN CARE"
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CALPURNIUS FABATUS: Who is Calpurnias Fabatus?
PLINY'S wife CALPURNIA'S grandfather
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CALPURNIUS FABATUS: Why is PLINY writing to him?
To give him the news that CALPURNIA has had a "MISCARRIAGE"
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CALPURNIUS FABATUS: What are the 3 reasons that PLINY states are why CALPURNIA had her "MISCARRIAGE"
1) "SHE IS YOUNG AND INEXPERIENCED" 2)"SHE DID NOT REALISE SHE WAS PREGNANT" 3)"SHE DID NOT TAKE PROPER CARE OF HERSELF AND EVEN DID SOME THINGS SHE SHOULD NOT HAVE DONE AT ALL"
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CALPURNIUS FABATUS: Why does PLINY say that FABATUS should "THANK THE GODS"?
Because she nearly "PAID FOR HER MISTAKE WITH HER LIFE" so although it is "UNFORTUNATE AT YOUR AGE" that he was deprived of seeing his "POSTERITY", they "PRESERVED YOUR GRANDDAUGHTER"
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CALPURNIUS FABATUS: What positive does PLINY see in the situation?
"AT LEAST NOW KNOW THAT SHE IS CAPABLE OF CONCEIVING A CHILD"
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CALPURNIUS FABATUS: What does PLINY say will be great about "DESCENT FROM YOUR SIDE AND MINE"?
The child would have "AN EASY PATH TO OFFICE" (only if its male obviously), "A WELL KNOWN NAME AND AN ESTABLISHED FAMILY TREE"
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HELVIDIAE: Who are the sisters of Helvidiae?
Women who "BOTH DIED GIVING BIRTH TO DAUGHTERS" who "IN THE BLOOM OF YOUTH" were "FELLED BY THEIR OWN FERTILITY"
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HELVIDIAE: How does PLINY describe his grief?
"ACUTE" but "NO WORSE THAN WHAT IS RIGHT UNDER THE CIRCUMSTANCES" - showing his virtue of being STOIC even in the face of tragedy
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HELVIDIAE: Which 3 people does PLINY says he is "VERY SORRY" for?
1) The sister's "INFANTS" who are "ORPHANS AT BIRTH" 2) The sister's "FINE HUSBANDS" 3)"EVEN FOR MYSELF"
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HELVIDIAE: Who does PLINY "CONTINUE TO BE DEVOTED" to and why?
The sister's "LATE FATHER" as his "WRITINGS AND ACTIONS ATTEST" because "NOW ONLY ONE OF HIS THREE CHILDREN SURVIVES"
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HELVIDIAE: What 2 things does PLINY wish for the remaining child?
That 1) "FORTUNE KEEPS THAT ONE SAFE" and 2) "MAKES HIM AS GOOD AS HIS FATHER AND GRANDFATHER"
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HELVIDIAE: How does PLINY show his "SOFT" side?
He says to the reader "YOU KNOW HOW SOFT I GO, HOW FRIGHTENED I GET WHEN SOMEONE I LOVE IS CONCERNED"
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MINICIA MARCELLA: Who is PLINY's letter to?
MARCELLINUS
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MINICIA MARCLELLA: Why does PLINY write this letter?
To inform MARCELLINUS that their friend "FUNDANUS"'s younger daughter has died.
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MINICIA MARCELLA: How old was Minicia Marcella? Why was this mentioned?
"JUST UNDER FOURTEEN" despite the fact she was "AS WISE AS AN OLD WOMAN" and as "SEDATE AS A MATRON" without losing her "GIRLISH SWEET AND VIRGINAL MODESTY"
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MINICIA MARCELLA: How does PLINY praise/describe her?
He says he has "NEVER SEEN ANYONE MORE CHEERFUL OR AGREEABLE OR WORTHY OF A LONG LIFE - EVEN IMMORTALITY - THAN THAT GIRL"
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MINICIA MARCELLA: What 4 things does PLINY reminisce about that Minicia Marcella did?
1) how she would "THROW HER ARMS AROUND HER FATHER'S NECK" 2) how she "LOVED HER NURSES AND PEDAGOGUES AND TEACHERS FOR THE SERVICES THEY PROVIDED HER" 3) How "STUDIOUSLY AND INTELLIGENTLY SHE READ" 4) "HOW SPARINGLY SHE PLAYED!"
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MINICIA MARCELLA: What did Minicia Marcella do with "SOBRIETY, PATIENCE AND CONSTANCY"?
She suffered her illness and did "AS SHE WAS TOLD BY DOCTORS" while cheering up "HER SISTER AND FATHER"
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MINICIA MARCELLA: What does PLINY say about her SPIRIT as when her "BODY COULD NO LONGER SUPPORT HER"?
He says it "WENT ON TILL THE LAST" and was "BROKEN NEITHER BY THE ILLNESS ITSELF NOR FEAR OF DEATH" which is "ALL THE MORE REASON WHY HER LOSS IS SO GREAT"
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MINICIA MARCELLA: Why was Minicia Marcella's death "BITTER FOR ITS TIMING"?
Because she was "ENGAGED TO MARRY AN EXCELLENT MAN"
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MINICIA MARCELLA: Why is FUNDANUS a "WISE AND SCHOLARLY MAN"?
Because he ordered that the "MONEY THAT HAD BEEN DELEGATED TO CLOTHES, PEARLS AND GEMS FOR THE WEDDING BE SPENT ON INCENSE, OINTMENTS AND SPICES FOR THE FUNERAL"
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MINICIA MARCELLA: Why does PLINY say that you should "FORGIVE, OR EVEN PRAISE" FUNDANUS?
Although his "DEVOTION HAS SUPPLANTED EVERY OTHER VIRTUE", he has lost a daughter who "COPIED HER FATHER IN EVERYTHING WITH A MARVELLOUS SIMILARITY"
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MINICIA MARCELLA: What does PLINY say to MARCELLINUS that he should be if he is to write to FUNDANUS?
He says that you should be "SOFT AND SYMPATHETIC" because FUNDANUS is struggling to "ACCEPT CONSOLATION"
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

ARRIA: How long ago had the events happened that PLINY talks about in the letter?

Back

"PLINY IS WRITING ABOUT EVENTS THAT HAPPENED MORE THAN HALF A CENTURY EARLIER"

Card 3

Front

ARRIA: What earned her a place in the "PANTHEON OF ROMAN MATRONS"?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

ARRIA: Who is PLINY'S letter to?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

ARRIA: Why is PLINY writing this letter?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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