Pilliavin et al

HideShow resource information
How many participants where there in this study?
about 4450 men and women who travelled on the new york underground through harlem and bronx about 60% males
1 of 34
where were the participants from?
New York ( Harlem and Bronx)
2 of 34
Describe the sample...
Trains had about 45% black and 55% white people. ( date of study was 1969 so racism was common) SO representative of general US population, or city dwellers of same area. AND SO we can perhaps generalise to other american cities of that date
3 of 34
How was the sample selected?
Opportunity sampling
4 of 34
where there control groups?
5 of 34
Write two features of this sample
1) 4450 men and women who travelled on the new york underground through harlem and bronx 2) participants were about 60% male and about 45% black and 55% white people
6 of 34
Any unusual feather of this sample?
Travelling out side rush hour times- may not have regular job. SO may have more time on their hands than most, so may be more willing to help. SO we must be cautious about generalising from this group to rush hour commuters and to modern commuters.
7 of 34
what type of experiment is this?
field experiment: 4 ivs were manipulated, there are also ivs that were not manipulated such as number of bystanders in immediate area.
8 of 34
What observational method was used in this study?
Participant observation. as the observers are participants.
9 of 34
Explain what the 2 female teammates did out side the critical area?
They recorded data as privately as possible. They also did event sampling that included recording the time of the first helper and the number of helpers. They noted who helped and they also recored qualitative comments from near by passengers.
10 of 34
Whats the location of this study?
New york subway ( underground) in the 1960s.
11 of 34
What were the dependant variables?
1)How long it took for help to arrive 2) total number of passengers who came to the victims assistance, plus their race and sex and location in the train.
12 of 34
What are the four independent variables?
1)whether victim was black or white 2)whether victim appeared drunk, or whether victim appeared disabled( and 19 trails with model version) 3)whether model acted before 70 seconds or after 4) whether model was distant from victim or close
13 of 34
What quantitive data was recorded?
1) how long it took for help to arrive 2) the total number of passengers who came to the victims assistance
14 of 34
What qualitative data was recorded?
1)Race, sex, location of helpers and other passengers 2) recorded comments made by nearby passengers. Observers also tried to elicit comments from any passenger sitting next to them
15 of 34
Snapshot or longitudinal? strength and weakness
Snapshot! strength : could quickly see features of helping in the short term weakness: they couldnt tell whether people would be helpful in the longterm.
16 of 34
what were the materials?
Eisenhower jackets, old slacks, a bottle of alcohol wrapped in a brown bag, black walking stick
17 of 34
Describe the qualitative results
comments from women were often excuses for not helping; its for men to help him or i wish i could help him im not strong enough
18 of 34
What did they aim to find out?
1) factors that affect whether people will help someone who has collapsed 2) whether diffusion of responsibility occurs in a realistic emergency situation
19 of 34
Name two conclusions drawn from this study?
1) people help on a 'cost benefit' basis, when the cost of not helping would be high, but cost of helping is low 2) diffusion of responsibility doesnt occur in situations where its clear what kind of help is needed and people feel confident
20 of 34
Give examples of good control used in this study
1) clothing was identical 2) location was highly controlled: always a 7min run between 59th st and 125th st on NY subway 3) Collapse was well controlled.happened 70seconds after train passed 1st station. victim staggered forward and collapsed.
21 of 34
Describe the collapse of the victim
It happened 70 seconds after departing the first station, the victim staggered forward and collapsed. Until receiving help the victim remained lying on the floor looking at the ceiling.
22 of 34
Describe an example of bad control in this study
there was much more sloppy control over number of trails under each condition. There were fewer black trials, and many fewer drunk trials.
23 of 34
Discuss the reliability of this study
1) Good control, ( in the victims collapse) should produce good reliability 2) the large number of trails seemed to produce consistent results 3) with two observers they missed the chance to check inter-rater reliability,
24 of 34
suggest good things about the ecological validity in this study
1)Setting was a completely realistic location in the new york subway 2) behaviour recorded: helping behaviour recored seem to be genuine and naturalprobl for the location
25 of 34
suggest some problems with the ecological validity of this study
1) the acting may have been bad, and helping a drunk or disabled person is unatrual for the location 2) good ecological validity has been secured by sacrificing ethical considerations.
26 of 34
Suggest a extraneous variable that may effect validity
Since it was conducted over several days some people maybe have seen some repeats and become suspicious
27 of 34
Discuss the population validity and how it effects how valid this study is
this behaviour may have been generalizable to the NY subway, but the racial bias aspect may not apply in all cultures, either then or today.
28 of 34
Discuss the ethical problems in this study
1) Deception, people are being deceived in to thinking someone has collapsed, but they were faking 2) No consent, it would have ruined the study 3)harm: some short term discomfort may have been caused by people not brave enough to help
29 of 34
Suggest and ethical strength in this study
it was confidential: no names no photos and no film
30 of 34
what is meant by the term "diffusion of responsibility"?
Having a large number of people around means people are less likely to help a victim as they think its someone else's job to act and will act faster
31 of 34
Out line one reason why diffusion of responsibility was not found in this study
Because the 'helpers' were not put into a lot of danger like they would be if they were helping Kitty Genovese, so would be more willing to help
32 of 34
Suggest two changes you could make to this study
1) have better control over how many trails were conducted in each condition of the IV to improve the way the results were analysed 2) have observes rate inter-raterbililty- to check for consistant results
33 of 34
what are some quantitative results:
1)helping behaviour was very common:all victims were helped 100% of the time, except black drunk(73%) 2)help came slower for drunk victim than disabled victim:(first 90seconds for disabled but less than 30% for drunk helped in first 70secs)
34 of 34

Other cards in this set

Card 2


where were the participants from?


New York ( Harlem and Bronx)

Card 3


Describe the sample...


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


How was the sample selected?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


where there control groups?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Core studies resources »