PI - Observation

What to observe?
Who, what, where, when, how
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What is unstructured observation?
Non-focused, qualitative data
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What is structured obs?
Specific behavioural categories using coding scheme, quantitative data, allows observer to focus on specific events and frequency.
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Give example of naturalistic observation.
Piliavin et al.
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x2 advantages of naturalistic?
High EV - natural setting & can generalise to everyday life, no demand characteristics.
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x2 disadvantages of naturalistic obs?
Lack of control, Not very reliable.
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Name an example of controlled obs.
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x2 advantages of controlled?
Have control, reliable
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x2 disadvantages of controlled obs?
Lacks EV, demand characteristics
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What is participant observation?
Researcher involved with those being observed
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x2 advantages of pp obs?
see what happens through pp's eyes, high EV - natural setting can generalise.
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x2 disadvantages of pp obs?
Difficult to record (invalid data), biased towards pp & misinterpret data.
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What is non-pp obs?
Observe from outside
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x2 advantages of non-pp obs?
cheap, not biased
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x2 disadvantages?
invalid data (not through pp's eyes), pp uncomfortable - behave unnaturally.
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What is covert obs?
pp unaware being observed
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x2 advantages
High EV - natural environment, act naturally.
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x2 disadvantages?
unethical - no consent, harm to observer if caught.
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What is overt obs?
pp fully aware being observed
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x2 adv of overt?
ethical, not worry about safety of researcher
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x2 disadv of overt?
not act natural, Low EV - artificial setting
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Explain how following improve validity & problem. Carry out covertly?
PP not aware, act naturally & more valid. Ethical concerns - privacy, could find out.
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Naturalistic setting improve validity & problems?
High EV, more natural behaviour - typical behaviour of everyday life than lab. Less control.
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Independent researcher?
Unaware of aims, objective, not biased. Lack of insight causes difficulties, not interested in success.
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What s event sampling?
Observer keeps count each time behaviour occurs.
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x2 adv of event sampling?
don't miss behaviour, good when behaviour not frequent.
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x2 disadv?
difficult to record all behaviour if a lot going on, time consuming & difficult to concentrate for long period.
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What is time sampling?
Behaviour chosen recorded in time intervals.
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x2 advantages of time sampling?
increases concentration, allows time to record. See change over time.
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x2 disadv?
miss interesting data between time points, data not fully representative of what occurred.
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How are the following reliable and problems. Operationalise coding scheme?
Eliminates ambiguity, easier & less subjective interpretation. Difficult to produce.
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Train observers on how to use scheme?
Consistent interpreting improves inter-observer reliability. Could reveal true nature of study, observer bias, subjective interpretation lowers reliability.
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Do a pilot study before?
Ensures observers understand behavioural categories & interpret same way. Time consuming & expensive.
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Check for same findings by different observers?
Increases accuracy, can be analysed statistically. Problems if little agreement.
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Large sample?
See if consistent findings across large number of people. Time consuming & expensive.
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State problems of following ethical issues. Poster before explaining observation, where & when (consent)
Invalid - act unnaturally.
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Poster afterwards explaining & contact details.
Not everyone will see, still not debriefed.
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Overt observation (consent, decepetion)
Invalid, unnatural.
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Public setting (privacy, consent)
Invalid, unnatural, social desirability, consent not given.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is unstructured observation?


Non-focused, qualitative data

Card 3


What is structured obs?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Give example of naturalistic observation.


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


x2 advantages of naturalistic?


Preview of the front of card 5
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