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• Created by: FireDwarf
• Created on: 17-09-13 18:34
What is an atom?
The basic unit of matter
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What does an atom consist of?
Neutrons and Protons inside the nuclues with electrong surrounding the nucleus.
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How are the electrons held to the nucleus?
Electronstatic force due to the electrons being negative and the protons being positive.
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Whats a nucleon?
Something inside the nucleus (protons or neutrons)
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Whats the charge of protons, electrons and neutrons?
1.6 x 10^-19 , -1.6 x 10^-19 ,0
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Relative charge?
1,0,-1
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Mass? Proton,electron and neutron
1.67 x 10^-27, 9.11 x 10^-31, 1.67 x 10^-27
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Relative? Proton,electron and neutron
1,0.0005, 1
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What is an isotope?
An atom with the same number of protons but with a diffrent number of neutrons
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How to work out specific charge?
Charge/Mass
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Nulceons?
The nucleus's charge is always positive (protons) and is the number of protons (bottem number) x by the charge amount (1.6 x 10^-19) divided by the mass ( the protons + neturons x the mass number- 1.67 x 10^27)
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Outside?
MUST INCLUDE ELECTRONS IN WORKING OUT CHARGE AND MASS
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What does SNF stand for?
Strong Nuclear Force
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What is Strong Nuclear Force ?
A force found in the nucleus between nucleons which holds them together.
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Describe SNF?
below 0.5 fm the force is a repelling force. This is to prevent the nucleons colliding. Above 05fm distance from center then it is a attracting force. As the distance increases the attraction increaces up to a point because
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con
at around 3fm or so the force decreases untill it is eventually none existent.
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How does the electrostatic force and the SNF differ?
The strong nuclear force has a range of around 4fm while the electrostatic has virtually a infinite range but will decrease in strengh as the distance increases.
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What is good about a stable nuclei?
The forces are balanced.
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What is nuclear decay?
Nuclear decay is when an unstable nuclei gives off decay to become stable.
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3 types of decay?
alpha, beta and gamma
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Alpha?
Alpha decay occurs when the nuceli needs to lose neutrons and protons. It is sometimes called a helium nuclei. It has 2 protons and 2 neutrons (2 on bot, 4 on top)
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Alpha equation?
X --> A + Y ( Y has 2 less protons and 4 less mass) (alpha is +2 on bot and + 4 at top)
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Beta?
occurs when a neutron randomly turns into a proton
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There was a question why the beta radiation had varying amounts of energy, the scientists hypothesised that there must be therefore something else which was given out which carried this energy.
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Whats this called?
antineutrino
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What gives out antineutrinos?
Beta Decay and the sun
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equation?
X ---> B- + v + Y ( Y has 1 less proton but same mass)
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Gamma?
electromagnetic wave that occurs when the nucleus has too much energy. No mass and no charge.
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What is a photon?
A packet of electromagnetic waves
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How are electromagnatic waves emiited?
In short burst waves with each burst leaving the source in a different direction
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What type of waves are electromagnetic?
Transverse waves
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Order of the EM spectrum going from largest wave size to smallest
radio,microwaves, infared, visible, ultraviolet, xray, gamma ray
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Order of the EM from smallest frequency to largest
radio,microwaves, infared, visible, ultraviolet, xray, gamma ray
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Symbols of the upside down y = c/f
Y = Wavelengh (m), c (speed of light, m/s) Frequency of the wave (Hz)
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What is a neutrino?
A neutrino is a uncharged weakly interacting sub-partical which is created by forms of decay (eg: beta decay or the sun)
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What does each neutrino have?
A antiparticle associated with it known as a "antineutrino"
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What is a transverse wave?
Direction of vibration is perpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels.
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When are photons emitted?
When a fast moving electron is stopped or slowed or changes direction, when an electron in a shell moves to a lower energy level
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What is the formula for a photons energy?
E= hf
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Laster beams consist of photons of the same frequency. What is the equation for the power?
P = nhf (n = number of photons passing a fixed point each second)
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What happens when antimatter and matter particals meet?
They anniliate themselves and give out raditation.
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What is annihilation? What does it produce?
Wen a particela and a co-rosponding antiparticle meet and their mass is convered into radiation energy. Two photons are produced.
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What is pair production? What is produced?
Photon creates a partical and a corsponding antipartical and vanishes in the proccess.
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How does eletrostatic force occur?
Electrostatic force between two charged objects is due to the exchange of virtual photons.
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Why cant we pick them up?
If we intercepted them, we would stop the force acting.
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Interactionist model? Repulsion
Skateboard facing each other, one throws a ball. The thrower is pushed back while the catcher is pushed back, both repell
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Attraction
Skateboards, opposite facing. Throws a boomerang, causing thrower to go back. Other catches it when it spins around, causes him to go back towards other skater. Attraction.
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What is weak nuclear force?
WNF causes neutrons to turn into protions and vice versa in B- and B+ decay.
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What occurs when a neutrino and a neutron interact?
Proton is given out from the neutron and a b- from the neutrino. The wave exchanged is a boson. (W)
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Proton-antineutrino interaction?
Proton to neutron, and antineutriono to B+.
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B- decay is therefore
Neutron to proton, W- given out, which creates a antineutrino and a anti-beta (electron)
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B+ is therefore
Proton to neutron, with a W+ being given out, creating a B+ as well as a neutrino.
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What is electron capture?
Proton rich nucleus causes a proton in a proton rich nucleus to turn into a neutron due to intersctions with inner shell electrons. P to N and e- to v with a w+ interaction.
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Diffrences between W boson and the virtual photons?
W boson has mass, virtual photon has a zero mass, W boson has charge, Virtual does not, w boson is WNF and electron capture, while virtual is electrostatic force.
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

What does an atom consist of?

#### Back

Neutrons and Protons inside the nuclues with electrong surrounding the nucleus.

### Card 3

#### Front

How are the electrons held to the nucleus?

Whats a nucleon?

### Card 5

#### Front

Whats the charge of protons, electrons and neutrons?