Physics- Matter and Radiation

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: FireDwarf
  • Created on: 17-09-13 18:34
What is an atom?
The basic unit of matter
1 of 54
What does an atom consist of?
Neutrons and Protons inside the nuclues with electrong surrounding the nucleus.
2 of 54
How are the electrons held to the nucleus?
Electronstatic force due to the electrons being negative and the protons being positive.
3 of 54
Whats a nucleon?
Something inside the nucleus (protons or neutrons)
4 of 54
Whats the charge of protons, electrons and neutrons?
1.6 x 10^-19 , -1.6 x 10^-19 ,0
5 of 54
Relative charge?
6 of 54
Mass? Proton,electron and neutron
1.67 x 10^-27, 9.11 x 10^-31, 1.67 x 10^-27
7 of 54
Relative? Proton,electron and neutron
1,0.0005, 1
8 of 54
What is an isotope?
An atom with the same number of protons but with a diffrent number of neutrons
9 of 54
How to work out specific charge?
10 of 54
The nucleus's charge is always positive (protons) and is the number of protons (bottem number) x by the charge amount (1.6 x 10^-19) divided by the mass ( the protons + neturons x the mass number- 1.67 x 10^27)
11 of 54
12 of 54
What does SNF stand for?
Strong Nuclear Force
13 of 54
What is Strong Nuclear Force ?
A force found in the nucleus between nucleons which holds them together.
14 of 54
Describe SNF?
below 0.5 fm the force is a repelling force. This is to prevent the nucleons colliding. Above 05fm distance from center then it is a attracting force. As the distance increases the attraction increaces up to a point because
15 of 54
at around 3fm or so the force decreases untill it is eventually none existent.
16 of 54
How does the electrostatic force and the SNF differ?
The strong nuclear force has a range of around 4fm while the electrostatic has virtually a infinite range but will decrease in strengh as the distance increases.
17 of 54
What is good about a stable nuclei?
The forces are balanced.
18 of 54
What is nuclear decay?
Nuclear decay is when an unstable nuclei gives off decay to become stable.
19 of 54
3 types of decay?
alpha, beta and gamma
20 of 54
Alpha decay occurs when the nuceli needs to lose neutrons and protons. It is sometimes called a helium nuclei. It has 2 protons and 2 neutrons (2 on bot, 4 on top)
21 of 54
Alpha equation?
X --> A + Y ( Y has 2 less protons and 4 less mass) (alpha is +2 on bot and + 4 at top)
22 of 54
occurs when a neutron randomly turns into a proton
23 of 54
What is special about Beta?
There was a question why the beta radiation had varying amounts of energy, the scientists hypothesised that there must be therefore something else which was given out which carried this energy.
24 of 54
Whats this called?
25 of 54
What gives out antineutrinos?
Beta Decay and the sun
26 of 54
X ---> B- + v + Y ( Y has 1 less proton but same mass)
27 of 54
electromagnetic wave that occurs when the nucleus has too much energy. No mass and no charge.
28 of 54
What is a photon?
A packet of electromagnetic waves
29 of 54
How are electromagnatic waves emiited?
In short burst waves with each burst leaving the source in a different direction
30 of 54
What type of waves are electromagnetic?
Transverse waves
31 of 54
Order of the EM spectrum going from largest wave size to smallest
radio,microwaves, infared, visible, ultraviolet, xray, gamma ray
32 of 54
Order of the EM from smallest frequency to largest
radio,microwaves, infared, visible, ultraviolet, xray, gamma ray
33 of 54
Symbols of the upside down y = c/f
Y = Wavelengh (m), c (speed of light, m/s) Frequency of the wave (Hz)
34 of 54
What is a neutrino?
A neutrino is a uncharged weakly interacting sub-partical which is created by forms of decay (eg: beta decay or the sun)
35 of 54
What does each neutrino have?
A antiparticle associated with it known as a "antineutrino"
36 of 54
What is a transverse wave?
Direction of vibration is perpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels.
37 of 54
When are photons emitted?
When a fast moving electron is stopped or slowed or changes direction, when an electron in a shell moves to a lower energy level
38 of 54
What is the formula for a photons energy?
E= hf
39 of 54
Laster beams consist of photons of the same frequency. What is the equation for the power?
P = nhf (n = number of photons passing a fixed point each second)
40 of 54
What happens when antimatter and matter particals meet?
They anniliate themselves and give out raditation.
41 of 54
What is annihilation? What does it produce?
Wen a particela and a co-rosponding antiparticle meet and their mass is convered into radiation energy. Two photons are produced.
42 of 54
What is pair production? What is produced?
Photon creates a partical and a corsponding antipartical and vanishes in the proccess.
43 of 54
How does eletrostatic force occur?
Electrostatic force between two charged objects is due to the exchange of virtual photons.
44 of 54
Why cant we pick them up?
If we intercepted them, we would stop the force acting.
45 of 54
Interactionist model? Repulsion
Skateboard facing each other, one throws a ball. The thrower is pushed back while the catcher is pushed back, both repell
46 of 54
Skateboards, opposite facing. Throws a boomerang, causing thrower to go back. Other catches it when it spins around, causes him to go back towards other skater. Attraction.
47 of 54
What is weak nuclear force?
WNF causes neutrons to turn into protions and vice versa in B- and B+ decay.
48 of 54
What occurs when a neutrino and a neutron interact?
Proton is given out from the neutron and a b- from the neutrino. The wave exchanged is a boson. (W)
49 of 54
Proton-antineutrino interaction?
Proton to neutron, and antineutriono to B+.
50 of 54
B- decay is therefore
Neutron to proton, W- given out, which creates a antineutrino and a anti-beta (electron)
51 of 54
B+ is therefore
Proton to neutron, with a W+ being given out, creating a B+ as well as a neutrino.
52 of 54
What is electron capture?
Proton rich nucleus causes a proton in a proton rich nucleus to turn into a neutron due to intersctions with inner shell electrons. P to N and e- to v with a w+ interaction.
53 of 54
Diffrences between W boson and the virtual photons?
W boson has mass, virtual photon has a zero mass, W boson has charge, Virtual does not, w boson is WNF and electron capture, while virtual is electrostatic force.
54 of 54

Other cards in this set

Card 2


What does an atom consist of?


Neutrons and Protons inside the nuclues with electrong surrounding the nucleus.

Card 3


How are the electrons held to the nucleus?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Whats a nucleon?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Whats the charge of protons, electrons and neutrons?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Physics resources:

See all Physics resources »See all Particle physics resources »