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Unit 1
What is inside an atom?
A positively charged nucleus composed of protons and neutrons
Electrons that surround the nucleus
What are isotopes?
Isotopes are atoms with the same number of protons and different numbers of electrons
How…

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What is antimatter?
Antimatter is antiparticles that each have the same rest mass and, if charged, have equal and opposite charge to the corresponding particle.
What happens when a particle and an antiparticle meet?
When they meet, antimatter and…

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Neutrinos and antineutrinos produced in beta decays are different from those produced by muon decays.
Why are lepton numbers important?
A lepton number is assigned to every lepton and antilepton, on the basis that the total lepton number for…

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What is a quantum?
A quantity of energy proportional in magnitude to the frequency of the radiation it represents.
Why can't an electron absorb several photons to escape from a metal?
When light is incident on a metal surface,…

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h . The de Broglie wavelength of a particle can be altered by changing the velocity of the particle.
A particle of mass m moving at velocity v has a de Broglie wavelength given by = mv
The velocity…

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resistance increases as it becomes
hotter

What are the characteristics of a diode?
A silicone diode conducts easily
in its `forward direction' above
a Pd of about 0.6v and hardly
at all below 0.6v or in the opposite
direction…

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force due to the pd across the material accelerates until it collides with another positive ion. If a component is at constant temperature, heat transfer to the surroundings takes place
at the same rate. Therefore, the rate of heat…

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How can we supply a variable Pd from a battery?
The source pd is connected to a fixed length of uniform resistance wire. A sliding contact on the wire can then be moved along the wire, giving variable pd…

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