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Particle physics and quantum phenomena notes
Atomic structure.

There have been several models used for the atom. The first was the plum pudding model which
has since been proved incorrect. Another is the Rutherford model which is the most used one
today. This was found using the alpha scattering experiment.…

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Strong nuclear force

This is the force that holds the nucleus together.

Given that the nucleus is comprised of positively charged particles, you would expect that it
would fall apart-this is not the case. Although the strong electromagnetic force causes the protons
to repel each other, an either stronger force…

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As well as this, this radiation particle is emitted when a proton is disintegrated into a nucleus, a
positron and a neutrino.

Particles and antiparticles

Every particle has an antiparticle. This is a particle which is equal in mass, size and density, but is
opposite in charge.

When a particle…

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The mass of each particle is equal to :

E= 1.67x10-27
x (3x 108

E=1.5x 10-10 J

This gives a total energy of 3x10-10
J and suggests that each photon has 1.5 x 10-10 J of energy.

This can then be subbed into the formula: E=hf, to find the…

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Different wavelengths and frequencies give the waves different properties. Increases and
decreases in amplitude (height of the sine wave from the contant) also alter the property of the
wave. This is covered more in unit 2

Every electromagnetic wave travels at the speed of light which is 3 x108 .…

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Photons are explored more in the section about photoelectricity and photon theory.

Particle sorting

All matter in the universe can be categorised into two catergories: Hadrons and Leptons


Hadrons are particles and antiparticles which can interact through strong interaction

These include Baryons and mesons. Baryons are particles which contain…

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In all interactions between particles, lepton numbers much be conserved. In terms of simple
lepton numbers, a 1 is awarded to leptons, a -1 is awarded to antileptons and a 0 is awarded to
non- leptons.

However, lepton numbers are far more complex than this. Lepton numbers are divided amongst…

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In terms of quarks this is

Udd uud + e +

The d quark changes to a u quark, and a beta particle and an electron antineutrino are released to
conserve the baryon number. As well as this, the full lepton number is conserved at a lepton has a

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Photo electricity

The photoelectric effect is used to prove the wave-particle duality of electromagnetic waves.

The photoelectric effect is where electrons are emitted from the surface of a metal when
electromagnetic radiation is directed at it. At AS we look specifically at Light. There several factors
which influence photoemission:


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Each conduction electron absorbs a photon. If this photon has enough energy and exceeds the
work function, the electron will escape from the metal surface. If it does not, the electron will
collide with the ions of the metal to dexcite from the excited state it is in from absorbing…


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