• Created by: evepoag
  • Created on: 18-10-22 13:39
What are the 2 categories of pharmacotherapuetics?
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What are pharmacokinetics?
The movement of drugs within the body
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What are the 4 stages of pharmacokinetics?
1. Absorption
2. Distribution
3. Metabolism
4. Excretion
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What are pharmacodynamics?
The effects of drugs, and their mechanisms of action
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What are the 2 pharmacodynamic effects drugs can have?
Systemic effects
Cellular effects
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Name the organisations of the human body
Chemicals make up cells, which make up tissues, which make up organs, which make up organ systems
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Drugs act by binding to protein targets on the cell.
What are the 4 categories of protein targets?
1. Receptors
2. Ion channels
3. Carrier proteins
4. DNA
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Describe nerve signalling
The neurone creates an electrical message, which is passed along the axon and myelin sheaths. When it reaches the end, it produces neurotransmitters which diffuse across the synapse to the target cell
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Describe endocrine signalling
The endocrine releases hormones which enter the bloodstream. They leave the bloodstream and diffuse through the membrane to attach to the receptor protein on their specific target cell
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Describe local signalling
This happens when two cells are not touching but are very close.
The signalling cell releases local mediators, for example growth factor, which binds to the target cell
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What is an agonist drug?
A drug that interacts and binds with its target cell, triggering a RESPONSE
drug has an action or effect
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What is an antagonist drug?
A drug that binds to its target cell but does NOT stimulate a response, it blocks the receptor and therefore inhibits activity
drug has no action or effect
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What 3 things affect drug absorption?
1. route of administration
2. formulation of medicine
3. ingestion of food
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Most drugs and drug molecules are excreted by the what?
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Which term describes when a drug has a narrow margin of safety between the effective dose and the toxic dose?
Low therapeutic index
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A drug which undergoes extensive first class metabolism will have a what?
A low bioavailability
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Define plasma half life
The time it takes for the plasma concentration of a drug to reduce by half
the time it takes for a drug's value to reduce by half
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Which route of administration has 100% absorption into the systemic circulation?
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Pharmacokinetics is what?
the effect the body has on drugs
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What is a pro- drug?
A drug given in its inactive form, requiring metabolism
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GTN is a drug which undergoes extensive first class metabolism. What route should it NOT be administered by?
IV infusion
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Which organ undertakes the metabolism of drugs?
The liver
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Where in the lungs does gas exchange occur?
The alveoli
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What gains oxygen and what loses carbon dioxide in gas exchange?
Pulmonary capillaries
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Name 6 types of respiratory drugs
1. Bronchodilators
2. Corticosteroids
3. Antibiotics
4. Cough preparations
5. Anti-histamines
6. Leukotriene modifiers
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Name 2 types of bronchodilators
Short and long-acting beta-2 agonists
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Name a type of anti-histamine
Muscarinic antagonists
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Describe two alternative routes of respiratory drug delivery
Oral - prescribed when inhalation isn't possible, usually corticosteroids

Parental - injections in severe and life-threatening asthma when nebulisation isn't adequate
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Describe muscular control of bronchodilation
Changes in the bronchiole's smooth muscle change the diameter of lumen
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Where are the beta-2 receptors found?
In the airway smooth muscle
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Why does bronchodilation happen during the 'fight or flight' response?
The release of adrenaline causes the beta-2 receptors to be triggered, which causes smooth muscle of bronchioles to relax so that more oxygen is supplied to the body
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What happens to an asthmatic patient's airway normally and when in an acute asthma attack?
The walls are normally inflamed and thickened
In an asthma attack, the smooth muscle tightens even further
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Describe the airway of chronic bronchitis
It is inflamed, with an increased amount of mucous glands producing excess mucus, which causes a chronic cough
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What effect on the smooth muscle does the sympathetic nervous system have?
It relaxes the smooth muscle which causes bronchodilation
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What neurotransmitters does the sympathetic nervous system produce?
Adrenaline and noradrenaline
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Which receptors on smooth muscle do the neurotransmitters join with?
Beta-2 receptors
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Considering this, which drug would be useful to use with the sympathetic nervous system?
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What effect on the smooth muscle does the parasympathetic nervous system have?
Constriction of the smooth muscle, causing bronchoconstriction
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What neurotransmitter does the parasympathetic nervous system produce?
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Which receptors on smooth muscle do the neurotransmitters join with?
Muscarinic receptors
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Considering this, which drug would be useful to use with the sympathetic nervous system?
Muscarinic antagonists
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Salbutamol is a short-acting beta-2 agonist
How does it work?
Normally, adrenaline will bind to the beta-2 receptors and causes bronchodilation.

Salbutamol is an agonist of adrenaline. It mimics adrenaline and binds to beta-2 receptors causing bronchodilation
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What can selective b2 agonists be nicknamed for this reason?
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What are the side effects of selective b2 agonists?
When the beta-2 receptors are stimulated, they produce bronchodilation

However, these drugs also stimulate the beta-1 receptors on the cardiac muscle, which causes tachycardia
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Describe the actions of anti-muscarinic bronchodilators,
eg: ipatropium bromide
Normally, the parasympathetic nervous system produces acetylcholine. Acetylcholine binds to the acetylcholine (ACh) receptors which promote bronchoconstriction.

Anti-muscarinic bronchodilators block the ACh receptors from acetylcholine, which causes bron
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What does the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems then promote?
Sympathetic promotes bronchodilation

Parasympathetic promotes bronchoconstriction
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What do corticosteroids do?
They are anti-inflammatory agents which reduce inflammation and stop immune responses
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What type of drugs are contra-indicated in the treatment of asthma?
Beta blockers - they cause bronchospasms.

They are also non-selective and block beta-2 receptors, causing bronchoconstrictions
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Why is inhalation the preferred route of administration for respiratory drugs?
Name 4 reasons
* Side effects are reduced
* The dose required is smaller than an oral route
* The drug is delivered directly into the airway
* Avoids first-pass metabolism
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What is a drug's therapeutic index?
A ratio which compares the plasma concentrations at which a drug will become toxic, and the concentration at which a drug is effective
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Why is a plasma half life important?
People metabolise and excrete drugs faster than others
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If the % of drug in the plasma is 50%, this means 50% of the drug has been removed. It has taken 20 hours for it to get to 50%
What is the half life of the drug?
20 hours
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Card 2


What are pharmacokinetics?


The movement of drugs within the body

Card 3


What are the 4 stages of pharmacokinetics?


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Card 4


What are pharmacodynamics?


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Card 5


What are the 2 pharmacodynamic effects drugs can have?


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