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China

1950's-60 - Population increased from 562-820 million due to increasing birth rates and decreasing death rates

There was a population growth of 2.8 per year

In 1970, held one fifth of the worlds population

Therefore in 1979 China inforced their one child policy as the continued increase in population would have had an impact on resources

The policy put regulations on family sizes, late marriage etc

Government provided insentives for this; free education, priority housing, pension, child care and family benefits

If you had more than one child; 15% taxes on income and loss off all benefits above

If people knew they were having a girl, they would abort it  - female infantcide - sex ratio in China is now a problem - 105 boys to 100 girls

Increased steralization and forced abortions

Growth rate decreased from 2.8% to 0.629% in 2008

More strict in urban areas but in rural areas second child was aloud if first was a girl or disabled (fallen from 2.9-1.7)

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France

At the end of WW2, the population was 40 million - same as 1840

They tried to increase birth rates with financial insentives, encouraging working women to have babies, state supported day centres

30% faire reductions on transport for 3 children families

Maternity leave; 20 weeks for first child, 40 weeks for 3+ child

£1064 for those with 3+ children

Up to1967 - Banned contraseptives

1960 - Fertility rate as 2.75 decreased to 1.67 in 1992 as the cost of babies was still to high

Fertility rose by 1.94 in 2005 but this is not enough.

Population now = 60.7 million is ageing and by 2050 a third of them will be over 60

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Iran - youthful population

There have been four revolutions for women, which influenced the birth rate;

  • The urban revolution = Women who move to the cities (i.e.Tehran) usually have fewer children than those who stay in the rural areas - 67% of population now in urban areas
  • The education revolution = Women who are educated better, are more likely to marry later, become more aware of family planning (74% use contraception by 2006) and gain paid employment
  • The working revolution = Workers in cities find it harder to arrange childcare
  • Migration revolution = Women who migrate from Iran have more Westernised lifestyle with smaller families and more consumer goods.

Fertility rate has decreased to 2.0 per woman

There will be a greater proportion of people in the economically active age range - decrease in dependancy rate means rising rates of investment and savings - encourage foreign investments in the country

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USA - economic migration

In 1965, an act was passed that set an annual limit of 120,000 immegrants from the Americas and 170,000 immegrants from Europe and Asia. 

In 1990, these quotas were increased by 40% - more than 5 million immegrants arrived between 1991 and 1996 

Some americans argued that these immegrants were taking their jobs

In 1995, 55% of immegration was to four states; California, York, Florida and Texas

This was due to availability of employment, locations of existing immigrant communities and the land border with Mexico for California and Texas, Floridas proximity to Caribbean countries

In 1997, 25% of Californias population were born outside the USA - Los angeles 40% - New York 16%

Immigrants on average pay 32% less tax than native americans

Over 40 years, children of immigrants will pay far more to the state in taxes than they will take from it

Foreign-born residents are 35% more likely to recieve public assistance than native Americans

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The Isle of Purbeck - Rural migration

  • Population of almost 500,000
  • Population has increased over the past 40 years
  • Population of Purbeck is considerably older than that of the country as a whole
  • The out-migration of the younger populations in search of economic oppurtunities and lost-cost housing is also a factor
  • Birth rate is 10.1 per thousand
  • Death rate was 11.9 per thousand resulting in a natural decrease in population
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Byker

  • Population of 8220
  • Low A*-C rate - 1,292, (13.3%)
  • Social housing = 2,826
  • Unemployment = 33%
  • Terranced housing = 1,653
  • Blocked flats = 1,973
  • Morrisons shut down due to vandelism
  • High crime rates due to high levels of unemployment and poverty
  • Poor relationships between the police and the community
  • Sexual health clinics
  • Lots of terranced housing  - may have to share bedrooms 
  • High proportions of ethnic communities - ethnic understanding/desputes, clash of cultures, influx of foreign shops
  • Low moral - negative multiplier effect
  • Byker wall - secure housing for under priveledged for over 30 years
  • Vetto
  • Little green space
  • Community centres - increase community cohesion 
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Jesmond

  • Area of Studentification - Newcastle university
  • Most common age group = 20-24
  • Most affulent suburban area in Newcastle
  • Larger, terranced housing
  • Grammer schools, 2 schools, private school
  • Open space around family housing
  • Some houses taken over for university offices
  • Multiple occupancy buildings
  • Full time students = 35%
  • North of city centre
  • Unemployed = 23%
  • Ammenities to suit students
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Longhorsley

  • 75% A*-C GCSE - positive multiplier effect on children
  • Privite housing on south edge of village
  • Declining farming community
  • Village green - sense of community
  • Lack of amenities - 1 school, 1 pub (1 closed down), 1 b&b, 2 farms
  • 422 in Longhorsley are in grade AB jobs - higher manigerial/proffesional
  • People must have cars to live here
  • Unemployment = 2%
  • Detached housing
  • Population of approx 600
  • 97% are white
  • Affluent
  • 1 council estate, but still has garages and green spaces
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Extras

  • Japan
    Growth fuelled by high birth rates through education, economy, healthcare
    Progressed through stags 2+3, 50% time UK did
  • Taiwan
    Progress slowed in 20th century due to Japanese empire
    Post 1945 - developments in agriculture
    1960-90 - Economy grew by 9.5%
    Could be in stage 4 but no census data
  • UK - 2041 - 25% will be over 60
    Life expectany increased to 81 and 77
  • Uganda - 50% are under 15
    3% are over 65
    On average have 7 children
    3.2% unemployment
    Life expectancy of 52
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Germany and the UK

Germany

  • 10 years ago 4% renewables, now 27.3% - self suffiency, environmental
  • Lowest levels of coal since 1990
  • Cutting greenhouse gases by 40% - 2020, 80% 2050
  • All power plants shut by 2022
  • Investments in energy saving equipment - economy growth 1.4%
  • Consumption decreased by 3.8% last year
  • 55% fossil fuels

UK

  • 15% renewables by 2020
    7000 offshore wind turbines
    900000 acres of land for biofuel production
    Severn barrage - tidal power
  • Coal 36.3%, Gas 26.8%, Renewables 15%, Oil 0.7%, Nuclear 19.8%, Other 1.5%
  • 20% increase in nuclear power - White paper
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Indonesian Tsunami 2004

  • 26th December 2004, 7:58am
  • Earthquake magnitude 9
  • Travelled 2000 miles
  • Waves travelling 800 miles an hour
  • Indio-australian plate subducted under Eurasion plate
  • Tsunami 1m high in water, 15m on land
  • 8 million litres of oil released into environment
  • $3 billion raised by international aid
  • 240,000 died, 50,000 children
  • Costs between $8-15 billion
  • 5 million homeless
  • 13 countries affected - mostly Thailand
  • 400,000 jobs lost
  • Spread 3km inland
  • Energy released equal to 28000 Hiroshema Bombs
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Holbeck Hall

  • 3rd-5th June 1993
  • Prior to landslide, sloped at 35 degrees
  • Hotel was originally 60-70 metres back from cliff
  • 1 million tonnes of glacial till fell
  • Cliff retreeated by 70m
  • 30,000 tonnes of rock armour placed at bottom of cliff
  • Slope was regraded to 24 degrees - stabilised with a metal rod
  • 140mm rainfall in 2 months
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Holderness Coastline

1. Bridlington = Sea wall

2. Hornsea = Sea wall, 15 Groynes, Gabions to protect the caravan park and riprap

3. Mappleton = Rock armour and Groynes

4. Withernsea = 17 wooden groynes - main road which transports gases

5. Easington = 25m from cliff is gas station. Rock armour

6. Kilnsea = Managed retreat

Retreats 2m every year

Made of clay and glacial til

25% gas comes from Easington

Land is currently worth £5,500, but will be worth nothing - no compensation

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Bangladesh

  • 70% of total area is less than 1m above sea level
  • June- September (2004) - Monsoon season
  • One of worlds most densely population countries - 125million
  • $7 billion damage
  • 40% Dhaka under water (1 million people live here)
  • 80% of land built on a delta
  • 750 people killed
  • 2 million without homes
  • 60% of country flooded
  • 35cm of rain fell on one day 13th september
  • 350km of embankments - 7m high - $6 billion
  • 5000 food shelters
  • 30-40 million, 7 large dams - 40 years to complete
  • Ghanges, Brahmaputra and Meghna
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Carlisle

  • January 8th 2005
  • 6-8th, 15% of annual rainfall fell in 36 hours
  • 90-120 mph winds
  • 3 died
  • 2400km catchment area
  • River Eden
  • 1600 homes flooded
  • 70000 people without power for 3 days
  • Re-apprasial of flood defences - 3 years - £20 million
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Sustainable energy case studies

  • Wind energy - Birmingham city stadium powered by wind power, reduced carbon emissions by 3500 tonnes
  • Biomass - Ethanol program from sugar cane - 18% of transport fuel is ethanol/bioethanol
  • Solar power - Chinese city Rizhao, 99% have solar water heaters, solar cookers. Street lights powered by PV cells
  • Wave energy - LIMPET - uses on commercial scale
  • BP - Employ 100,000 people in 100 countries. Refine oil - 2.8 million barrels a day. Presence growing massively in china. links with russia
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