Paper 3- issues and debates, gender, schizophrenia and addiction

belief that all humans are alike and as such what is true for one human is true for everyone
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Gender Bias
when differences between genders have not been properly considered, leading to a biased or potentially biased opinion
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a gender bias that leans particulalry in favour of males as the research comes from a male centred view of the world
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Alpha Bias
where any differences that might exist between males and females are exaggerated
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Beta Bias
where any differences that might exist between male and females are ignored or minimised
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the 'spirit of time', in that any period in time has certain social and moral expectations that people will generally adhere to
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Cultural Bias
when differences between cultures have not been consiered properly, leading to a biased or potentially biased conclusion
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a cultural bias that leans in favour of a particular culture because the research has only been conducted using participants of that culture
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a form of ethnocentrism that is particularly focused on the Western world's viewpoint
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a focus on a single culture to understand it within a local context
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a focus across multiple cultures in order to understand elements that apply across all cultures
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Cultural Relativism
a person's own cultural background affects þe view they have and the behaviours they display
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Free Will
the belief that our behaviour is governed by our choices, and that those choices are only minimally determined by other forces
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Causal Explanations
the ability to explain a phenomenon in terms of the causes that made it happen. knowing the causes of things allows us to make scientific predictions of what will happen if certain conditions prevail
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what happens has to happen and could not have occured in any way other than the way it did
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Hard Determinism
the determinist principle to the letter of the with no room for the concept of free will
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Soft Determinism
only some elements of our behaviour are determined and the rest is open to free will (the choices we make). it is sometimes called the compatibilist viewpoint
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Biologically Determined
determinism happens at the level of biology
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Genetic Determinism
determinism that happens at the genetic level
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Psychic Determinism
behaviour that is determined by psychic (psychodynamic) phenomena
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Environmental Determinism
determinism that happens as a direct result of the influence that our envionment has on us
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the transfer of genetic characteristics from parents to their offspring
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the social and cultural forces that shape a persons behaviour
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the idea that a behaviour is a consequence of heredity
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the idea that a behaviour is a consequence of the environment. This includes experience and learning, but also factors such as stress and diet
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someone who believes that a behaviour is the consequence of nature rather than nurture
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someone who believes that a behaviour is the consequence of nurture rather than nature
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Interactionist Approach
in the context of nature and nurture, it is one that considers behaviour to be influenced by both nature and nurture
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Levels of Explanation
the idea that any behaviour can be explained at different levels of reduction. At the very top is the holistic level, where no reduction is suggested and at the very opposite end is the level of physics where everything is reduced to atoms or smaller
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the idea that complex behaviours can be reduced to, and fully explained by, looking at the components at a lower level that make up that behaviour
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Biological level of explanation
all can be explained in terms of the workings of the brain
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Evolutionary lebel of explanation
all can be explained by reference to the evolutionary adaptations that lead to a behaviour
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Behavioural Level of Explanation
all can be explained with reference to learning processes
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Cognitive Level of Explanation
all can be explained by understanding the information processing that happens
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social\environmental level of explanation
all can be explained by understanding the things that happen in the social environment
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Biological Reductionism
all behaviour can be reduced to, and explained by, the biology of the organism at that moment in time
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Environmental Reductionism
all behaviour can be reduced to and explained by the environmental circumstances impacting on the organism at that moment in time
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the idea that complex behaviours cannot be fully explained by reducing them to explanations at lower levels, but must be explained at the highest, holistic level
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Idiographic Approach
how individuals behave and how they differ
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Nomothetic Approach
using group data to create theories and laws about people's behaviour in general
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Empirically tested
testing in a scientific way that allows for a theory to be supported or refuted
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Ethical Guidelines
a set of principles that can be used to judge whether or not a piece of research was conducted in an ethical manner
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Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC)
a regulator, set up to protect the public against the risk of poor practise. they keep a register of health and care professionals who meet set standards for their training, professional skills, behaviour and health
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British Psychological Society
the professional body and learned society for psychologists in the UK
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Social Sensitivity
research that may have an emotional effect on its participants
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the biological fact of being male or female based on genes and hormones
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the difference between the ways that men and women behave and the concepts of masculinty and femininity
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Gender Dysphoria
a mismatch between biological sex and core gender identity, commonly described as 'feeling trapped in the wrong body'
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Sex Role Stereotype
a generalized expectation about a typical feminine or masculine quality
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possessing a blend of maculine and feminine characteristics in roughly equal proportions
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chemicals released from the endocrine glands. they travel in the bloodstream to target organs
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male hormones such as testosterone
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Klinefelter's Syndrome
a condition in males that results from an XXY chromosome pattern, affecting 1/600. they have normal male genitals, but small testes not producing sperm (they are infertile with low sex drive)
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Turner's Syndrome
a condition in females resulting from a partially or fully missing X chromosome (XO). both patterns occur randomly and are linked to infertility in adulthood due to normal external genitals but ovaries fail to develop. affects 1\2000.
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a male hormone or androgen that is released from the testes
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an area of the forebrain involved in physiological functions such as regulating sexual behaviour
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Social Learning
learning through observation and imitation of role models
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the shared habits of a group of people
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Cognitive Explanation
focuses on the child's understanding and active construction of knowledge about gender
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Gender Identity
the ability to label oneself correctly as a girl or boy
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Gender Stability
the understanding that gender is stable across time
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Gender Constancy
the understanding that gender does not alter despite changes to appearance
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Psychosexual Stages
stages in which the ****** focus is on different parts of the body at different ages
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taking aspects of other people into the psyche
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a change to identity due to the process of internalization
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Positive Symptom
a behaviour that is present but would not be seen in ordinary people (eg hallucinations)
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Negaltive Symptoms
a behaviour that is missing but we would normally expect ot be displayed (eg an abaence of volition)
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where one or more secondary disorders coincide with the primary disorder
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Culture Bias
decisions based partly on the culture in which they are made
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Gender Bias (re. schizophrenia)
decisions made regarding diagnosis being different depending on whethe the patient is male or female
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Prevalence Rate
the percentage of live cases within a population suffering from someething (eg schizophrenia) at any given moment
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Incidence Rate
the number or percentage of new cases in a given period of time. this is usually a much lower figure than the prevalence rate (about 15 per 100,000 for schizophrenia)
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Twin Study
a study that looks at the development of symptoms in twins that are raised in the same home environment
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Monozygotic Twin
twins that both come from the same zyogte and as such share 100% of their DNA. they are commonly referred to as identical twins
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Dizygotic Twins
twins that come from two different zygotes but develop in the womb at the same time. on average they share 50% of their DNA. they are commonly referred to as non-identical twins
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Adoption Study
a study that looks at the development of symptoms in twins who are raised in different home environments
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Family Study
a study that looks at the development of symptoms in the family of a person with a disorder. usually this extends to the immediate family but it can look beyond this
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Co-morbidity Rate
the rate at which two people show the same disorder. it is not to be confused without the version without the word 'rate' that refers to two separate disorders in the same individual
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Ventricular Enlargement
fluid fills the inside of the brain and is confined to areas called ventricles. the fouid is under pressure so if there is brain damage the ventricles become enlarged and this can easily be seen in the brain scan
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MRI scan
magnetiv resonance imaging that provides a static image of the inside of the brain
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Basal Ganglia
involved in movement, emotions and integrating sensory info. abnormal functioning in schizophrenia is thought to contribute to paranoia & hallucinations-excessive blockade of dopamine receptors by traditional antipsychotics lead to motor side effect
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Frontal Lobe
critical to problem solving, insight and other high-level reasoning. perturbations in schizophrenia lead to diffuculty in planning action and organising thoughts
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Limbic System
involved in emotion. disturbances are thought to contribute to the agitation frequently seen in schizophrenia
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Auditory System
enables humans to hear and understand speech. in schizophrenia overactivity of the speech area (wernickes area) can create auditory hallucinations - the illusion internally generatd thoughts are real external voices
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Occipital Lobe
processes information about the visual world. people with schizophrenia rarely have full blown visual hallucinations but disturbances in this area contribute to diffuculty interprting complex images, recognising motion and reading others' emotions
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mediates learning and memory formation, intertwined functions that are impaired in schizophrenia
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Neurotransmitter Substance
a chemical released from neurons when they fire. the neurotransmitter travels across amvery small gap and attaches to anreceptor on thebnext neuron to make a small on whether or not that next neuron will fire
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a neurotransmitter substnace thought to be overproduced in schizophrenia, and is believed to be one of the main reasons for the positive symptoms
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using inner thoughts and feelings to explain the human condition. it assumes human behaviour to be influenced by inner drives and forces that ar often unconscious
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Family Dysfunction
communications within a family are detrimental to the workings of the family group such that they create conflict and distrust
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Rorschach Inkblot
a symmetrical pattern made from a blob of liquid ink. the pattern is abstrct but is used to elicit a story of what the image represents. it is one technique used to examine family dysfunction
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Communication Deviance
a lack of effective communication. it occurs when the speakers (parents) fail to communicate their meaning to the listener (schizophrenic). the reason for the lack of communication is as the speakers use contradictory statements and, or behaviour
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Expressed Emotion
where relatives, especially immediate family, use hostile forms of communication towards the person with schizophrenia
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Mixed Methods Approach
combines quantitative methods (experiments) with qualitative methods (interviews) within a single study
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Working Memory
used to hold information while it is being processed by other systems such ä the language or reasoning systems
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Delusional Thinking
where a person holds a beleif that is not true. they can be overly positive (eg believing you sre god) or overly negative (eg believing the government is after you)
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drugs used to treat psychosis. these drugs usually target the positive symptoms of schizophrenia
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the power of a drug. a more potent drug will need less of it to be administered than a less potent drug in order to get a particular effect
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Drug Adherence
the degree to which a patient will continue to take a drug. particular problem for schizophrenics, who suffer delusions of persecution making them less likely to want to take the drugs
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a simulated treatment that is not a real treatment. for example, if the treatment is in pill form then the placebo may be a sugar pill made to look like the real pill
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Family Therapy
includes all of the family or close relatives as part of treatment
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informing relatives about the nature of schizophrenia
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Behavioural Family Therapy
therapy that concentrates on problem-solving and communication skills and which involves the entire family
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Relatives Group
therapy that only involves key members of the schizophrenic's family and may not include the patient themselves
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Cognitive Behaviiur Therapy (CBT)
a form of therapy that breaks a problem down into more manageable pieces that can be improved one at a time
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Token Economy
a behaviour management technique where tokens are given out for good behaviour. the tokens can later be exchanged for things the person wants (e.g. treats)
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Interactionist Approach
this approach suggests that the best explanations combine biological and psychological elements and the best therapeutic outcomes are obtained by using a combination of drug therapies and psychological therapies (i.e. drugs and CBT)
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Diathesis-Stress Model
the most well-known kind of interactionist model, where the disorder (in this case schizophrenia) is seen as the result of a combination of biological and psychological factors
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a hard-to-define term that refers to the need to engage in a behaviour despite that behaviour having negative consequences for the person engaging in it
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the inability to refrsin from a behaviour. it is hard to separate this term from addiction
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Physical Dependence
the physical need to engage in a behaviour. failure to engage results in physical (eg bodily) effects
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Psychological Dependence
the psychological need to engage in a behaviour. failure to engage results in psychological (eg mental) effects
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the decrease in effect that pccurs over time for same input (eg a single cigarette). where it occurs, it means that the addict must increase their dose for the same level of satisfaction
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Withdrawal Symtoms
symptoms that occur when a person stops engaging in an addictive behaviour. these can be unpleasant and make the person want to re-engage in the behaviour
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Startle Response
the response commonly referred to as "jumping out of your skin". for example, hearing a large bang close by - initial response is to tense up and freeze with every sense pointing to the source of the noise
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the importance of something to that particular person.
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when problems arise between an addict and those around them as a direct result of engagement in addictive behaviour
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the return to a behaviourafter trying to give up
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Genetic Risk Factor
within the context of addiction, it is any genetic mechanism that causes the likelihood of a person becoming an addict to increase
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Family Studies
studies that look at whether a particular genetic trait runs in families
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Adoption Studies
studies that look at whether a person (usually a twin) develops more in line with the traits of their adoptive family or with the traits of their biological family. often the behaviours of the adoptive twin is compared with the non-adopted twin
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anyone a person comsiders to be of an equal standing to them. friends would be peers and some family members would be considered in the same way, though who these are may differ from person to person
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Addiction-Prone Personality
a personality measure found to be particularly useful in distinguishing between those who are more likely to become addicts and those who are less likely to
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a hormone released when the body requires more energy (generally in a stressful situation). it also increases the activity of dopamine, thst stimulates the reward system
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Reinforcement Schedule
pattern of rewards given after a response can be given after a fixed period of time (fixed interval) or no of responses (fixed ratio) alternatively time or no of responses required before reward can be given varies from trial to trial
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one of two or more versions of a gene on a chromosome. an individual inherits two alleles for each gene, one from each gene
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Enkephalins and Endorphins
two kinds of naturally occuring neurotransmitter substances (referred to as opiods because opiates like herion have the same efect) that have the effect of reducing pain and providing pleasure
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Cue Reactivity
the process by which external environmental cues can trigger the initiation of an addictive behaviour (ie the sulphur smell of a march being lit may trigger desire to have a cigarette, even though the match was being lit for a different reason)
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the ability to control what happens to you. the urges associated with smoking will be etremely hard to resist in a person who has low self-efficacy
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Cognitive Myopia
myopia means short-sightedness, so this term refers to cognitive short-sightedness. ie nicotine addiction this is the denial of future health problems in favour of immediate pleasure of smoking
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Locus of Control
how a person sees the influences on life events. someone with internal LOC may believe they control what happens. someone with an external LOC believes behaviour is influenced by external environment and so isnt directly under their control
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Partial Reinforcement
wherena reward (reinforcement) is not provided after every correct behavioural response but is given only after some responses
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Variable Ratio Reinforcement Schedule
operant conditioning schedule in which reinforcement is provided after variable number of attempts. in slot machine scenario pay out may occur somewhere between 1&50 tries and pay outs are weighted to be small (hope of win while losing money anyway)
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gradual reduction of a conditioned behavioural response due to the removal of the reward that had become associated with that response
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Cognitive Bias
sort of thinking short-cut in that there are rules of thumb allowing people to make quick decisions based on expectations drawn from past experience, mostly helpful and accurate but can sometimes be erroneous and lead to false beliefs
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Drug Therapy
a treatment that involves giving a personma drug to mimic or replace the drug they are receiving through thier addictive behaviour
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Aversion Therapy
therapy designed to extinguish the addicitve behaviour by pairing it eith something unpleasant
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Covert Sensitisation
therapy that tries to pair the addicitve behaviour with an unpleasant feeling but does so by using the person's imagination rather than live stimuli
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CBT (in context of addiction)
technique designed to get a person to change their thinking to change their behaviour. gradually the person learns to think about the addictive behaviour as less desirable and also learns coping strategies to deal with the desire to feed addiction
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Theory of Planned Behaviour
that an intention to behave stems from the combination of behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs and comtrol beliefs
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Prochaska's Stage Model of Behaviour Change
a model that tries to explain the stages that a person must go through in order to change addictive behaviour. includes possibility ofmrelapse as well as successful removal of addictive behaviour
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when differences between genders have not been properly considered, leading to a biased or potentially biased opinion


Gender Bias

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a gender bias that leans particulalry in favour of males as the research comes from a male centred view of the world


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where any differences that might exist between males and females are exaggerated


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where any differences that might exist between male and females are ignored or minimised


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