Issues and Debates: Contributions to Society

All Contributions needed to Know for Edexcel Unit 4 Synoptic Exam:

Cognitive: Cognitive Interview, CBT

Social: Prejudice, Obedience

Psychodynamic: Gender, Psychoanalysis

Biological: PET scans, Gender

Learning: Systematic Desensitisation, Token Economies

Criminal: EWT

Health: Drug Therapy

Clinical: Understanding Schizophrenia

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  • Created by: Issy H
  • Created on: 12-06-12 17:33
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Cognitive Interview
· Loftus found EWT to be
unreliable (effect of leading Strengths Weaknesses
questions). A witnesses · The cognitive · It is hard to test
memory can be altered by interview was which features in the
many things: time lapse, how developed based on cognitive interview are
well evidenced theory. effective as there are
questions are asked, E.g. Loftus and may different features
schemas. The cognitive Palmer, Pickel, involves.
interview has been developed Godden and Baddeley. ·Milne found that the
(Geiselman) to help problems · Evidence came from cognitive interview did
well controlled lab not help recall any
with memory. E.g. a cognitive experiments. They more information than
interview helps the witness to were replicated and other methods.
tell the story in their own found to be reliable.
way. Cue dependency may be
used to help retrieve
information.…read more

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Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
· CBT is used to treat many
mental health disorders. Strengths Weaknesses
Many counsellors use it and · The patient is in charge · Therapy may not work for
has been found successful at of the therapy- not the everyone as the client has
clinician. It is likely to last to be able to remember
treating conditions in the longer, as the individual is and cognitively process
short term, relieving not dependant on the information and recall
clinician always. events to help the clinician
symptoms quickly. CBT · It is considered scientific. understand.
focuses on how thoughts and The way information is · Clients who believe the
gained is done in an therapist is the answer
feelings can lead to behaviour objective way, without may not progress as much
which has consequences. imposition of the as those who believe it is
researcher. down to the induviduals
Learned experiences can progress.
trigger negative automatic
thoughts giving thoughts and
responses which can me
maladaptive to the individual.…read more

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Reducing Prejudice
· Social identity theory Strengths Weaknesses
suggests prejudice is formed · Sherif found evidence ·It is hard to remove in
due to in group and out group that having a subordinate group and out group
behaviour. We identify with goal reduces prejudice. behaviour as it seems
inevitable in society.
·Studies use lab or field
our in-group. We compare experiments which control ·Stereotypes, which cause
our selves to the out-group, variables making studies prejudice have many
and put them down. We reliable. factors causing influencing
them- it is hard to measure
·The subordinate goal
categorise our selves with theory and SIT, support what reduces prejudice.
certain characteristics that each other as the both
make our group better. We agree that group
delineation reduces
put the other group down to prejudice.
boost our self esteem. Sherif
found in his study when
groups are given a common
goal, prejudice is reduce. This
is known as a subordinate
goal.…read more

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Understanding Obedience
· Milgram explained
Strengths Weaknesses
obedience using agency
theory, where he · Many studies have
shown evidence of blind
· There are may factors
which affect obedience-
suggested that people act obedience to an authority context, authority figure,
as agents in society to figure such as Milgram and individual. It is therefore
Hofling et al. Participants hard to measure
authority figures, obey went against their moral obedience in a valid way.
orders from people in code. · There is a lot of
power rather than acting ·Studies use labs or are
field experiments where
disobedience too in
studies. 35% in Milgram
autonomously, of their there are clear controls, so and 1/22 in Hofling. We
free will. Hofling found reliable cause and effect
conclusions can be
need more research into
why people to not obey- to
nurses obeyed someone assumed. help understand why
they thought was a doctor people do obey.
even when they were told
in their training not to do
so. They obeyed an
authority figure. This helps
us understand why brutal
acts such as genocide
occurs.…read more

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Understanding Gender
Strengths Weaknesses
· The psychodynamic
approach explains that · Little Hans provides
evidence for the Oedipus
· Like all psychodynamic
concepts it is hard to test
boys learn gender Complex. the Oedipus/Electra
complex in a scientific way.
·Connor and Brown-
behaviour via the provide evidence towards · Therapy involved to
the fact that women may understand this is long,
Oedipus complex in the want to marry men like expensive and a huge
Phallic stage by their dads, and for boys
vice versa. This is
commitment., Society
would not recommend
identifying with their evidence for Oedipus
complex and parental
psychoanalysis to all.
father. For girls they go identification.
through the Electra
complex. It helps society
understand gender
differences, and explains
why a women may
choose to date a man
who is like her father…read more

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