P6 Physics Revision

What do atoms consist of ?
A nucleus plus orbiting electrons
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What do radioactive elements emit ?
Ionising radiation
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What are isotopes ?
Are atoms of an element with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
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What are these types of radiation stopped by ?
Paper, A thin sheet of aluminium and a thick block of lead/concrete (respectively)
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What are the three types of nuclear radiation ?
Alpha Particles, Beta Particles and Gamma Rays
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Define: 'Halflife'
Halflife is the time taken for half of the radioactive nuclei now present to decay.
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What is radioactivity measured in ?
CPM (Counts per minute)
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What did the Rutherford experiment show ?
That atoms have a very small nucleus, where all of the mass is concentrated.
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What force hold the nucleus of an atom together ?
The strong force
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Explain the formula - E=mc^2
Energy = mass x ([Speed of light in a vacuum]^2)
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What helps to control a nuclear fission reaction in a nuclear power station
The control rods 'cover up' any neutrons and stop them hitting more uranium atoms, slowing down the chain reaction.
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What is low level nuclear waste and how is it stored ?
Things such as gloves and paper and can be disposed of by burying it in secure landfill sites.
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What is intermediate level nuclear waste and how is it stored ?
Intermediate level waste is things such as the metal cases from used fuel rods and can be disposed of by sealing in concrete blocks and then steel canisters deep underground.
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What is high level nuclear waste and how is it stored ?
High level nuclear waste is used fuel (uranium) and is very radioactive and therefore generates hear. It has to be cooled for around 50 years and then moved to permanent storage.
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What would a high dose of ionising radiation do to the body's cells ?
It would kill the cells outright and often lead to radiation sickness.
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What is the unit for radiation dose ?
Sieverts (Sv)
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Which categories of people are more at risk from ionising radiation ?
Uranium miners and processors, airline staff (cosmic rays), workers in nuclear power plants, medical staff (e.g. radiographers)
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What can ionising radiation be useful for ?
Treating cancer (gamma therapy), to sterilise medical equipment and food by killing bacteria, and for use as medical tracers to detect problems in organs such as the kidney's.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What do radioactive elements emit ?

Back

Ionising radiation

Card 3

Front

What are isotopes ?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are these types of radiation stopped by ?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the three types of nuclear radiation ?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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