P1a

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State the name of the model of the solar system that suggests that the Earth is in the centre of the universe?
geocentric
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State the name of the model of the solar system that suggests that the Sun is in the centre of the universe?
heliocentric
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who first suggested the heliocentric model?
Copernicus
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who found evidence that proved the heliocentric model
Galileo
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How did Galileo disprove the geocentric model
he used a telescope to observe 4 of Jupiter's moons, he saw that they orbitted Jupiter not earth. This was evidence against the geocentric model that was believed at the time
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Give 2 advantages of using a telescope to observe the solar system
can observe non visible EM waves, can see more distant objects
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What word describes the bending of light through different materials as a result of a change in density
refraction
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what is the name of the line perpendicular to the glass on a ray diagram of light refracting through a glass block
'normal' line
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angle of incidence =
angle of refraction
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the incident ray is parallel to the ...
reflected ray
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when light slows down, does it bend away/ towards the 'normal' line
towards
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What is the focal length?
distance between lens and focal point
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What is the focal point?
point at which parallel rays of light come together
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how do you measure the focal length of a convex lens
measure the distance between the lens and the screen
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What does the objective lens do in a refracting telescope
creates the image by focusing parallel light rays
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what does the eyepiece lens do in a refracting telescope
magnifies the image
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what does a reflecting telescope have instead of an eyepiece lens
a primary mirror
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What word describes the number of waves passing a point every second
frequency
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what word describes the distance from a point on one wave to the same point on the next wave
wavelength
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what word describes the maximum distance of particles in a wave from their normal position
amplitude
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what is frequency measured in?
Hertz (Hz)
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What is amplituide measured in?
Metres (m)
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What is wavelength measured in?
Metres (m)
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What name is given to a wave in which the oscillations are perpendicular to the direction of travel and energy transfer?
transverse wave
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Give 3 examples of a transverse wave
light waves, EM waves and S waves
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What name is given to a wave in which the oscillations are parallel to the direction of energy transfer
longitudinal waves
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Give 2 examples of a longitudinal wave
sound waves and P waves
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Wave speed=
frequency x wavelength
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Name the 7 types of waves in the electromagnetic spectrum, in order of increasing frequency
radio waves, microwaves, infrared waves, visible light, ulraviolet rays, x-rays, gamma rays
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State a danger of excess exposure to microwaves
internal heating of cells and tissues
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State a danger of excess exposure to infrared radiation
skin burns and overheating
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State a danger of excess exposure to visible light
blindness, damage to retina
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State a danger of excess exposure to ultraviolet radiation
damage to DNA, skin cancer, temporary 'snow blindness'
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State a danger of excess exposure to X-rays
mutation in DNA, leading to cancer
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State a danger of excess exposure to Gamma rays
mutation in DNA, leading to cancer
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State some uses of radio waves
communication, broadcasting, satellite transmissions
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State some uses of microwaves
cooking, mobile phones, communication
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State some uses of infrared
thermal imaging cameras, TV remote controls, cooking (e.g. toasters)
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State some uses of visible light
vision, photography
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State some uses of ultraviolet
detecting forged bank notes, disinfecting water
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State some uses of x-rays
medical x-rays, airport security scanners
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State some uses of gamma rays
sterilising medical equipment, detection of cancer and its treatments
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If you add or remove an electron from an atom, it becomes ...
ionised
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Give 3 examples of radioactive sources that emit ionising radiation
alpha particles, beta particles, gamma particles
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What galaxy is our solar system a part of?
Milky Way
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what is a galaxy
a collection of stars
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Why are some telescopes put into orbit outside earth's atmosphere?
light waves from space are not reflected or refracted by clouds, so a clearer image is produced. Also, earth's atmosphere absorbs certain types of EM radiation that the telescope may be trying to collect
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Name some methods used to gather evidence for life beyond Earth
space probes, soil experiments, rovers, SETI
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what does SETI stand for
Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence
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What is a nebula
cloud of dust
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what force pulls the nebula together
gravity
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what is a protostar?
hot cloud of gas, not quite hot enough for nuclear reactions
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what stage of its lifecycle is our sun at?
main sequence star
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what is a main sequence star
a stable star usind hydrogen in fusion reactions
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What name is given to a star that has used up most of its hydrogen and expanded greatly
red giant
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what is a white dwarf?
small, cooling star in which fusion reactions have finished
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what word describes a huge explosion that happens when the core of a red supergiant collapses
supernova
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what is a neutron star
small, dense star formed when a red supergiant collapses
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how is a black hole formed
when a red supergiant collapses under its own gravity
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What is the Big Bang Theory
the theory that the universe began from a tiny point with huge energy has been expanding ever since
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What evidence is there to support the Big Bang Theory
red shift, Cosmic Microwave Backgroung (CMB) radiation
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What is Cosmic Microwave Backgroung (CMB) radiation
left over EM radiation from the Big Bang
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What is the Steady State Theory?
the theory that the universe is continually expanding and new matter is being created within the universe as it expands
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What evidence is there to support the Steady State Theory?
red shift
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What is red shift
when waves emitted by something moving away from the observer have their wavelength increased and frequency decreased
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

State the name of the model of the solar system that suggests that the Sun is in the centre of the universe?

Back

heliocentric

Card 3

Front

who first suggested the heliocentric model?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

who found evidence that proved the heliocentric model

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How did Galileo disprove the geocentric model

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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