Oral Cavity

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What functions does the oral cavity have?
Prehension, mastication, imbibition, deglutition, digestion, heat exchange, grooming, respiration during exercise
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What are the boundaries of the oral cavity?
It extends from lips to pharynx and bounded dorsally by hard and soft palate
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What is the vestibule?
The space between lips/cheeks and teeth
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What is the oral cavity proper?
Space inbetween teeth
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What common disorders are there for the oral cavity?
Peridontal disease, dental disease, trauma and neoplasia
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What are the clinical signs for oral cavity disorder?
Salivation, inappetance, halitosis and quidding
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What do you look for in a clinical exam of the oral cavity?
Colour of mucosa, capillary refill time (usually 1.5s in healthy animals) and lymph nodes
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What are lips used for?
Prehension, communication and suckling
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What species differences are there for lips?
Some species have very sensitive and mobile lips eg horse and rabbit while others are less sensitive and mobile eg cow and cat
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Which muscle and nerve are responsible for movement of lips?
The orbicular muscle innervated by the facial nerve (7th cranial nerve)
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What are tongues used for?
Taste, prehension, lapping, manipulating food, swallowing, grooming, vocalisation and thermoregulation
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Why are the papillae covered with a stratified squamous epithelium?
It is heavily ceratinised so that it is hardened for grooming
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What does the body of the tongue attach to?
Mandible and frenulum
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What is the root of the tongue attached to?
hyoid bone (lingual process in ruminants)
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What do cattle have specifically on their tongue?
torus linguae
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What is the lyssa in carnivores?
The groove in the middle of the tongue
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What intrinsic muscles are in the tongue?
Lingualis proprius
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Which 3 directions do the muscle fibres in lingualis proprius go in?
Longitudinal, transverse and perpindicular
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What extrinsic muscles are there in the tongue?
Genioglossus, hyoglossus, styloglossus, geniohyoideus and stylohyoideus
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Where is the genioglossus attached and what is its action on the tongue?
Mandibular symphysis to body of tongue and it causes protraction of the tongue
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Where is the hyoglossus attached and what is its action on the tongue?
Basihyoid bone to root of tongue and it causes retraction and depression of the tongue
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Where is the styloglossus attached and what is its action on the tongue?
Stylohyoid bone to body and root of tongue and it causes retraction and elevation of tongue as well as moving it laterally
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What does the tympanohyoid cartilage articulate with?
The tympanic bulla of the skull
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What does the thyrohyoid bone articulate with?
the thyroid cartilage of the larynx
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Which hyoid bone is unpaired?
The basihyoid bone
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What can you see if you reflect the soft palate caudally?
Glottis, piriform recess and palatto glossa arches
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Which nerve is responsible for the motor innervation of the tongue?
hypoglossal nerve (XII)
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Which nerves are responsible for sensory innervation of the rostral 2/3 of the tongue?
Taste: facial nerve and General sensation: trigeminal nerve
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Which nerves are responsible for sensory innervation of the caudal 1/3 of the tongue?
Taste: glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) and General sensation: glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)
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Which artery supplies the tongue?
Lingual artery (paired and is branch of external carotid)
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What major salivary glands are there?
Parotid, mandibular and sublingual
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Where does the parotid duct go to?
4th upper premolar in dog
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Where does the mandibular duct go to?
Along floor of oral cavity and opens behind lower incisors
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Where does the sublingual duct go to?
Along side that of mandibular and shares common opening
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Where are the minor salivary glands found and their ducts?
In the wall of the oral cavity and oral pharynx and the ducts are short opening directly into the cavity
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Which salivary gland can cause eye problems if blocked?
Zygomatic gland
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What muscle is found in the soft palate?
Palatinus muscle
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What does the long soft palate in the horse mean?
The horse is an obligate nasal breather
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Describe the musculature in the pharynx
It contains shorteners/constrictors and dilators (moves pharynx forward over food)
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How is the pharynx innervated?
Motor is vagus X and sensory is glossopharyngeal IX
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Card 2

Front

What are the boundaries of the oral cavity?

Back

It extends from lips to pharynx and bounded dorsally by hard and soft palate

Card 3

Front

What is the vestibule?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the oral cavity proper?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What common disorders are there for the oral cavity?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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