Gastro -intestinal system

  • Created by: Louisa
  • Created on: 22-10-19 16:52
what are the 5 process
mechanical processing and movement, secretion, digestion, absorption, and egestion
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mechanical processing and movement involves
chewing and mixing
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secretion involves
fluid, diestive enzymes, hormones, bile, acid, alkali mucus
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breaking down food to smallest absorbable units
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through mucosa, into blood or lymph vessels
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undigested material eliminated
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what is motility
the stretching and contracting of the muscles in the Gi tract
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what is peristalsis
the sycronised motility of the muscles
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the mouth is
where digestion begins
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what types of teeth d owe have
incisors, canines, premolars, molars
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the tongue does what? and is what type of muscles
skeletal muscle, moves food in mouth and used for taste
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the saliva is produced by
salivary glands
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saliva is made up of
mucin, salivary amylase, bicarbonate, lysoztme
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what direction does the stomach contract in
all directions
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what is the function of the stomach
digestion, food storage, regulation of delivery
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hydrochloric acid
produces a ph2 and breaks down large bits of food
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intrinsic factor is that
made by the small cells making acid, needed to absorb b12
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mucus protects
stomach lining
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pepsinogen with acid begins what
protein breadown
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stomach contraction allows for
blendingof food and propels food forward
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structural adaptation
3rdmuscle layer
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direction of travel of bolus
downwards, from lower oesophageal sphincter to pyloric sphincter
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chyme is what, and affects what?
result of mixing, affects hormone secretions regulating peristalisi and semptying of stomach
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food turns into what
a bolus and then a chyme
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function of small intestine in digestion
neautralise stomach acid, add digestive enzymes and bile, breakdown proteins, carbs and lipids, to absorbable material
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95% of food absorbed here
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structure - regins of small intestine
duodenum, jejunim, ileum
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mucosa adaptations
villi contains blood and lacteal capillaries
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what are the 3 stages of a carbohydrate
monosaccharide, disaccharide and polyssacharide
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what are the accessory muscles
pancreas, liver, gall bladder
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pancreas does what
secretes digestive enymes, and sodium bicarbonate
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liver does what (3)
produces bile (acts as an emulsifier - begins to break down fat), is onvolved in he heptatic portal system, drains blood from the digestive system, metabolic functions, storage sythnesis and chemiscal processes
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gall bladder does waht
stores bile
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what nurients are absorbed and how
proteins and carbohydrates (active transport) lipids (breakdown and reassemble) water (osmosis) vitamins and minteral (assorted means)
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what disorders are there to the digestive (GI) tract
lactose intolerance, diverticilosis, colon polys, colon cancer
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what disorders are there to the accessroy organs
hepatitis and gall stones
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malnutrition is in % if the world population and is caused by
13% caused by undernourishemnt
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eating disorders include
anorexia nervosa, bulimia
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appendicitis is characteried by
low, right side pain
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define ingestion
the tking in of food
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define propulsion
the mixing of the contents and moves them along the alimentary tract
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what is the alimentary canal
the gastrointestinal tract, or GI tract, essentially a ong tube through which food passes through
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what is included in the alimentary canal
mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anal canal
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assecory organs include
three pairs of salivary glands, the pancreas, and the liver and biliary tract
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the walls of the alimentary tract are made up of 4 layer...
the adventitia or serosa (outer covering) - muscle layer - submucosa - mucosa
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The adventitia or serosa in the thorax consists of ... and in the abdomen the organs are covered by...
loose fibrous tissue ... covered by a serous membrane (serosa) called peritoneum
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the peritoneum contains... found in the ... it is supplied by.... and provides as a...
a small amount if serous fluid within the abdominal cavity. richly supplied by the blood and lymph vessels and contains many lymph nodes. provides as a physicalbarrier to spread of infection
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the parietal peritoneum
lines the abdominal wall
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the visceral peritoneum
lines the organs
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what is the name and purpose of the fluid in the peritoneum
the peritoneal fluid, prevents friction between the membranes
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what is the meaning of the word intraperitoneal
the organ is almost compltely covered by the peritoneum
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what is the meaning of the word retroperitoneal
the organ is covered by the anterior side only
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what is the name for the rhyhtmic contraction and relaxation of the smooth muscle layer
the peristalsis
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what is the purpose of the sphincter
thickened rings of circular muscle that control the onward ovement, and to prevent backflow
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the submucosa layer consists of what
loose areolar connective tissue containing collagen and some elastic fibre, which binds the muscle layer to the mucosa
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the mucosa is the... which is made of... and has 3 main funcitons...
lining of the tract.. columnar epithelium .. protection, secretion and absorption
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the muscous membrane consists of ... and what is secreted
stratified squamous epithlial with mucus-secerting glands just below the surface ... secretes digestive juices
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saliva is produced from the, gastic juice... pancreatic juice... bile...
salivary glands, gastic glands, pancreas, liver
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increased parasympathetic activtiy to the digestive organs promotes
digestive organs
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the sypathetic nerve supply comes from
the spinal cord in the thoracicand lumbar regions
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the sypathetic nervous system would
decrease muscular activity and decrease glandular secretion
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the oral cavity is lined with
study stratifed squamous epithlium containing small mucus-secreting glands
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in the tongue what is the frenulum
the mucous membrane covering th elining of the tongue
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what is the frenulum made up of
stratified squamous epithelial cells, with numerous papillae contianing sensory receptors for taste
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what glands are found in the side of the face and under the mucous membrane in the floor of the mouth
the submandibular glands, and the sublingual glands
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what is found in saliva
water, mineral salts, salivary amylase, antimicrobial susbtances
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function of saliva
digestion of food, lubrication of food, non-specific defense and taste
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mechanical processing and movement involves


chewing and mixing

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secretion involves


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