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Vitamins vs Minerals
Minerals are usually inorganic elements in ionic form – examples include sodium (Na+), potassium (K+) and iodine (I–) Vitamins are organic compounds made by plants or animals – examples include retinol (vitamin A) and calciferol (vitamin D)
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Why is iodine needed?
iodine is needed for the synthesis of the hormone THYROXIN
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What are the consequences of iodine deficiency?
swelling of the THYROID GLAND in the neck(GOITRE), cretinism in children
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What are Nutrients?
chemical substances found in foods that are used in the human body
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Compare the energy content per 100 g of carbohydrate, fat and protein
Carbohydrates: 1,760 kJ per 100 g Proteins: 1,720 kJ per 100 g Fats: 4,000 kJ per 100 g
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Outline the consequences of anorexia nervosa
Bone and muscle problems – there is muscle and bone deterioration, resulting in reduced muscle mass and more fragile bones Mental health issues – development of mood swings, phobias and reduced mental focus, anaemia
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what is Phenylketonuria?
genetic disease,where there is a complete lack of enzyme TYROSINE HYDROXYLASE, due to lack of the gene coding the enzyme
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what is a symptom of Phenylketonuria?
High levels of phenylalanine in the blood, the levels are tested by a simple blood test after birth
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How is Phenylketonuria treated?
By special diet. Diet should include fruits, grains, vegetables and special formula milk and must be undertaken from early in life or else symptoms will appear(mental and physical retardation)
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What are the are the health effects of consuming saturated fatty acids?
There is a correlation between diets with high levels of saturated fatty acids and CHD mortality, but could be due low fibre content in diet
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What are the are the health effects of consuming cis-monosaturated fatty acids?
Rates of CHD(coronary heart disease) are low, but could be because of genetics
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What are the health effects of consuming Omega-3 fatty acids?
Even though much eye and brain tissue is made up of long-chain fatty acids, there is no clear evidence that omega-3 dietary supplements improve brain and eye development
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What are the health effects of consuming trans fatty acids?
CHD. In autopsies after death of CHD, Most fat in arterial plaque has been found to be trans fat
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Where is the appetite control centre located?
In brain, in the hypothalamus.Its role is to make us feel satisfied when we have eaten enough
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What hormonal stimuli affect the appetite centre?
insulin,secreted by pancreas when the glucose levels are high and PYY (3-36) secreted by small intestine when food is in it, leptin secreted by adipose tissue, with more secreted as amount of stored fat increases
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What carbohydrate, protein source, fatty acids and antibodies are found in human milk?
Carbohydrate-lactose, protein source 65% human whey, 35% casein, fatty acids-human butterfat, and antibodies are present
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What carbohydrate, protein source, fatty acids and antibodies are found in artificial milk?
carbohydrate-lactose OR glucose polymers, protein source-18% bovine whey, 82% bovine casein OR soya proteins, fatty acids- palm,coconut, soy or safflower oils, no antibodies
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Outline the causes of type II diabetes
diet rich in fats and low in fibre, obesity, genetic factors that affect metabolism
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Outline the symptoms of type II diabetes
high glucose content in blood,Frequent urination and general thirst ,Tiredness and blurred vision ,Nerve damage and erectile dysfunction, Kidney and back pain
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Explain the dietary advice that should be given to a patient who has developed type II diabetes
Maintain a low fat diet in order to avoid weight gain,Consume complex carbohydrates to ensure gradual release of glucose into blood Eat regular, small meals to ensure a steady supply of glucose into the bloodstream
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Cholesterol and CHD.(what is cholesterol?Why it is needed?What is the correlation between cholesterol and CHD)
Cholesterol is a steroid and is mainly found in animal products. It is an essential compound of membranes. As cholesterol rises, risk of CHD rises
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What is the importance of fibre?
Fibre cannot be digested in the small intestine. It might help to prevent obesity by increasing the bulk in stomach, which reduces the desire tho eat more food. It helps to prevent constipation.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why is iodine needed?

Back

iodine is needed for the synthesis of the hormone THYROXIN

Card 3

Front

What are the consequences of iodine deficiency?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are Nutrients?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Compare the energy content per 100 g of carbohydrate, fat and protein

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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