Research Methods

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  • Created on: 16-09-13 04:16
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Research Methods
Scientific method:
P s ychol
ogists
test
t
heir
t
heo r
ies
about
human behavi
our
by
carryi
ng
ou t
e mp i
ri
cal
studies
T h eor
y:
S t
ateme nts
that
summa r
ises,
or
gani
zes and
expl
ains
observat
ion
Theories:
We
const
ruct
and
test
t
heor
ies
inor
der
t
o descr
ibe,
under
stand,
pr
edi
ct
and
cont
rol
behavi
our
Research in Psychology
N eed s
to be
caref
ull
y desi
gned
a nd
a pl
an
devel
oped i
n or
der
for
i
t
to
be
carried out
ef
fect
ivel
y
I mp ortant
consi
derati
on:
Wh o
w i
l
l
parti
ci
pat
e?
H ow wi
ll
dat
a be
col
lect
ed?
H ow
w i
ll
dat
a
be analysed?
Aim: purpose of the study
D etai
ls
w ha t
specif
ic behavi
our
/ment
al
processes
w i
l
l
be
invest
igat
ed
I ncludes t
a rget
p opul
a t
ion
Procedure: Specific techniques used in a particular study
S t
ep
b y
Step
S hould have en ough det
ail
s t
o al
low others t
o un derst
a nd
how t
he
dat
a
w as
c ol
lect
e d (repl
icat
e t
he study)
D et
a i
ls
ho w da ta
is
coll
ect
e d
Findings: how the researcher has interpreted the data that was collected
O pen f
o r
di
scu ssi
on and debate
I f
r
e pl
icat
e d
b y
a nos.
of
dif
feren t
r
e searchers,
it
add s
to t
h e
credibi
li
ty
N o t
be generli
sed beyond t
h e r
e l
evan t
t
arg et
group
Ma yori
ty
h ave been car
ri
e d
ou t
in
We s t
ern Cu l
tur
e s but
o ur
t
hou ght of
as
app l
icabl
e t
o all
`
huma n natur
e '
C u l
tural
bi
as: ma yor
ing
the di
fferences
betw een cultur
es
by i
mp o si
ng
the
research f
indi
n gs
based
on on e
c ul
ture
to other
cultures
Sampling
Participants:
P eopl
e who
take
part
i
n a
psychol
ogical
st
udy
T ype of
part
ici
pant
depends
on t
he ai
m
T arget
populat
ion:
The
type
of
part
ici
pant
t
he r
e sear
cher
i
s
int
erest
ed
in
Size:
S ma l
l
groups:
more
open f
or
dist
ort
ions
as each
indi
vidual
has
quit
e a
lot
of
i
nfl
uence on
the
overal
l
resul
ts
P art
ici
pant
vari
abi
li
ty:
The
extend
to
w hi
ch
the par
ti
cipant
may shar
e a
commo n
set
of
tr
ait
s t
hat
ma y
bias
the
outcome of
t
he st
udy

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Opportunity Sampling (Convenience sampling):
A
samp l
e of
anyone
who
happens
to be
avail
able
a nd
w i
l
li
ng t
o par
ti
cipat
e
Advantages:
o E asy way
for
r
ese ar
cher t
o f
ind
part
ici
pants
Disadvantages:
o A
ce r
tain
type of
person
might
go t
o a
publi
c
area
o G end er
imbalance
o T h ese can l
ead to
biased
resul
ts,
makes i
t
h ar
d…read more

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Oft
en used
in
social
psychol
ogy r
esearch
w here
it
may
be di
ff
icul
t
to
access
part
ici
pants
Disadvantage:
o May not
be
a repr
esentati
ve of
a
group,
ma y
not
be abl
e t
o go
beyond a
ci
rcl
e of
f
ri
ends whi
ch ma y
be syst
ema t
ical
ly
dif
fer
ent
fr
om other
people
in
t
arget
pop
Ethics:
P sychologi
s t
s now
agree t
o
fol…read more

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Abl
e t
o use
stat
ist
ic
s t
o t
est
exper
iment
al
dat
a f
or
signi
fi
cance
and
rul
e
out
t
he
rol
e of
chance
Experimental Variables
Independent Variable (IV): manipul
ated
b y
the
researcher
,
ca uses
a
cha nge
in
th e
o t
her vari
abl
e.…read more

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Natural Experiment (Quasi Experiment):
R esear
cher
s have
no
cont
rol
over
the
vari
ables and
they are
natur
all
y occurr
ing
Limitation:
o C an '
t r
ando mly
all
ocate peopl
e
o D if
fi
c ul
t
to
g eneral
ize
o D if
fi
c ul
t
to
a ppl
y t
o
dif
fer
e nt
set
ti
ngs
o Imp o ssi
ble
to r
epli
cate exact
ly
o H ard
to
inf
e…read more

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Interval Same
qu al
it
ies
as Temperat
ure
or
dinal,
but
equal
di
stance bet
w een uni
ts
al
lows compa r
ison
of
one
u ni
t
to
a not
her
no
t
rue zer
o
Ratio Same
qu al
it
ies
as Age,
hei
ght,
wei
ght
,
i
nter
va l
,
but
it
has a
tr
u e p er
centage
z
e r
o, a
point
w her
e the
pr
op er
ty
b ei
ng me…read more

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Range Dif
fer
e nce
between t
he Quick
and easy t
o
small
est and
lar
gest cal
culat
e/Dist
ort
ed
by
val
ue out
li
ers
or ext
reme
val
ue
Standard Deviation The average
amo unt
al
l
More
se nsi
ti
ve measure
scor
e s
deviat
e f
rom t
he of
di
spersi
on /
a l
it
tl
e more
mea n t
ime
consumi ng
to
cal
culat
e
Non Exerpimental Methods:
T o
get
a…read more

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Data
b ased on
the part
ici
pa nt
s'
ow n Need s
to
be
tr
an spar
e nt
i
n t
he
c
a t
egories
of mea ni
ngs useful
for
studyi
ng descr
ipti
on of
the
me thods
that
it
uses
a
li
mited
n umb er
of
cases
in
de pt
h si
nce t
his
a dds
to i
ts
credi
bil
it
y
Useful
f
or descri
bing comp l
ex Know l
edg e
produced…read more

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Case Studies:
i
n depth
invest
igat
ions
of
huma n
exper
ience
that
ar
e
descr
ipt
ive,
narr
ow l
y f
ocuses and
comb i
ne bot
h obj
ect
ive
and subj
ect
ive
dat
a wh i
ch ar
e pr
ocess ori
entat
ed.…read more

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