More Rivers and coasts

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  • Created by: Romilly
  • Created on: 05-06-13 16:37
What are the three types of weathering?
Mechanical weathering, chemical weathering and biological weathering.
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Why does deposition occur?
The river slows down, the volume of water falls, the amount of material is too much, the water is shallower and if the river reaches the mouth.
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How are V-shaped valleys formed?
The river vertically erodes, as it does so the steep sides are attacked by weather which causes them to erode. The loosened material falls down creating a slope, resulting in a V-shaped valley.
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How are waterfalls and gorges formed?
They are formed when there is hard rock above soft rock. Water flows over the rock eroding the soft rock more quickly, this results in the hard rock over-hanging. Eventually the overhang will collapse and the process will repeat forming a gorge.
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How are meanders formed?
These are formed from deposition on the inside of the bend and erosion on the outside, due to differences in speed of the water flow. This creates bends in the river which are meanders.
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How are levees formed?
These are formed from repeated flooding of a river's banks, the water retreats back to the river but deposits sediment creating natural embankments, levees.
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How are deltas formed?
As river nears the mouth it deposits more material, this material creates deltas.
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What are the three main types of deltas?
Bird's foot, cuspate and arcuate/fan-shaped.
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Name an example of a bird's foot delta
The Mississippi delta
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Name an example of an arcuate/fan-shaped delta
The Nile delta
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Name an example of a cuspate delta
The Tiber delta
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What factors increase the risk of flooding?
Heavy and prolonged rainfall, snow melt, impermeable rock, steep valley, urbanisation and deforestation.
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What is peak discharge?
It is the highest discharge in the period of time you are looking at.
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What is lag time?
It is the time between the peak rainfall and peak discharge.
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What is the rising limb?
The increase in river discharge as rain water flows in to the river.
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What is the falling limb?
The decrease in river discharge as rain water flows out of the river.
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What factors affect the size and power of wave?
Wind and fetch.
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What is an example of a headland and bay?
Swanage bay in Dorset.
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What is an example of a cove?
Lulworth cove in Dorset.
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What is an example of a arch?
Durdles Door in Dorset.
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What is a sea wall?
A wall built from hard material out at sea, which reflects waves back out to sea.
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What is rip rap?
Boulders are piled up along the coast to reduce erosion.
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What are groynes?
These are wooden or stone fences that are built at right-angles along beaches that stop longshore drift.
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What are reverments?
These are slanted structures that absorb the energy of breaking waves.
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What are gabions?
They are rock filled cages built along the edge of coast to protect the coastline from breaking waves.
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What are breakwaters?
These are rock structures built off shore parrallel to the coast to reduce the force of waves by making them break before reaching the coast.
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What is an example of a spit or tombolo?
Chesil beach
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What is an example of a lagoon?
Fleet Lagoon
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What types of hard engineering flood management are there for rivers?
Dams and reservoirs, channel straightening, channel deepening, channel widening and man-made levees.
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What type of soft engineering flood management are there for rivers?
Afforestation, flood plain zoning, flood warnings and preparation (modified buildings, plans for what people should do during the flood and afterwards).
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why does deposition occur?

Back

The river slows down, the volume of water falls, the amount of material is too much, the water is shallower and if the river reaches the mouth.

Card 3

Front

How are V-shaped valleys formed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How are waterfalls and gorges formed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How are meanders formed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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