Module 6: Section 6- Ecosystems

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what is a habitat?
the place where an organism lives
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what is population?
all organisms of one species in a habitat
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what is a producer?
an organism that produces organic molecules using sunlight energy.
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what is a consumer?
an organism that eats other organism.
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what is a decomposer?
is an organism that breaks down dead or undigested oganic material
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what is a biotic factor?
the living features of an ecosystem e.g preditors or food.
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what is an abotic factor?
the non-living fautures of an ecosystem e.g.rainfall or temp
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what is energy sored as?
biomass
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what is biomass?
the mass of living material
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what is respiratory loss?
when energy is lost to the environment through respiration for movement and body heat.
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what is net productivity?
the amount of energy that's avalible to the next trophic level.
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how is it calculated?
gross productivity- respiratory loss
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how do you work out how efficient the energy transfer is, how would u do this?
net productivity divided by how much energy they recived in the 1st place x 100
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(Carbon cycle) what do plants absorb when carrying out photosythesis and what do they turn in to?
carbondioxide and carbon compounds in plant tissues.
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(Carbon cycle) what is this carbon passed on to?
primary consumers when they eat them.
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(Carbon cycle) what happens when consumers die?
the carbon compounds in the dead organisms are digested on by deomposers.
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(Carbon cycle) how is carbon returned to the air?
when organisms respire, and when fossil fuels are burnt, or returned to the atmosphere by volcanos.
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(Nitrogen cycle) what is nitrogen fixation?
when nitrogen gas in the atmosphere is turned into ammonia by bacteria
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(Nitrogen cycle) what is ammonification?
when nitrogen compounds form dead organisms (and animal waste) are turned into ammonia by decomposers, which go on to form ammonium ions.
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(Nitrogen cycle) what is nitrification?
when ammonium ions in the soil are changed into nitrogen compounds that an then be used by plants.
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(Nitrogen cycle) what is denaitrification?
when nitrates in the soil are converted into nitrogen gas by denitrifying bacteria-under anaerobic conditions
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(Nitrogen cycle) what are the other ways nitrogen gets into the ecosystem?
by lightning or artificial fertilisers
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what is sucession?
the prosess by which an ecosystem changes over time.
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what are the 2 types of sucession?
primary and secondary.
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what is primary sucession?
this hapens on land thats been newly formed or exposed, there is NO soil or organic material to start with
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what is secondary sucession?
this happens on land thats been cleared of plants, but the soil remains.
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what are the stages of sucession? part 1
primary sucecssion starts when i new species colonise a new land surface, the first specis to colonise the area are called pioneer species, when they die they decmpose and change the abiotic conditions, making the conditions less hosstile=new species
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what are the stages of sucession? part 2
then more and more plants build up and die oer time creating enough soil for larger plants to live there. at each stage, different plants are better adapted than others and so they out-compete the other plants=dominant species
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what are the stages of sucession? part 3
as succession goes on the ecosystem becomes more complex, new species move in alonside exissting ones=species diversity increases
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what are the stages of sucession? part 4
biomass also increases becuase the further stages have much larger plants, th final stage is called climax community-the ecosystem is suportting the largest and most complex community of plants and animals it can , wont change much more.
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what can prevent succession?
human activities.
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what is it called when succession is stopped artificially?
plagioclimax
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what is deflected sucession?
when succession is prevented by human activity, but the plagioclimax that develops is one thats different to any of the natural stages of the ecosystem
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what is abundance?
the number of individuals of one species in a particular area.
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what are the 3 types of transects?
line, belt, interrupted transects.
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what is a line transct?
a tape measure is placed along the transect and the species that touch the tape meaaure are recorded
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what is a belt transect?
data is collected along the transect using the frame qudrats placed next to eachother.
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what is an iterrupted transect?
taking measurements at intervals along its length.
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Card 2

Front

what is population?

Back

all organisms of one species in a habitat

Card 3

Front

what is a producer?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what is a consumer?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what is a decomposer?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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