Mod 1: Cells 1.1.1 Cell Structure

F211: Cells, Exchange and Transport

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State the max resolution and magnification of a light microscope, TEM & SEM
Light= 0.2um resolution & x1500 magnification. TEM= 0.0001um res & >x1,000,000 mag. SEM= 0.005um res &
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Explain the difference between magnification and resolution.
Magnification is how much larger the image is than the specimen. Resolution is how detailed the image is, and how well a microscope distinguishes between two points that are close together.
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Explain the need for staining samples for use in light microscopy and electron microscopy.
Sometimes the specimen is transparent. Light microscope uses a dye e.g. Methylene blue, eosin. The stain is absorbed by some parts more than others (contrast makes the different parts visible). Electron microscopes- dipped in heavy metal solutions
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How do you calculate the linear magnification of an image?
Magnification= length of image/length of specimen (AIM)
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Outline the functions of the organelles inside a cell.
Nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear envelope, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, ribosomes, mitochondria, lysosomes, chloroplasts, plasma membrane, centrioles, flagella and cilia.
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Outline the interrelationship between the organelles involved in the production and secretion of proteins.
Proteins made by ribosomes. They are found at the RER, attached to the cell membrane or free in the cytoplasm. New proteins produced at the RER are folded and processed (sugar chains added)- transported to the Golgi in vesicles and out of cell.
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Explain the importance of the cytoskeleton in providing mechanical strength to cells, aiding transport within cells and enabling cell movement.
Microtubules and microfilaments support the cells organelles. Also strengthen cell to maintain its shape. Transport of materials within cell. Proteins of cytoskeleton cause cell to move e.g. Flagella is propelled by the cytoskeleton
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How do prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ in their structures?
Prokaryotes are smaller, their DNA is circular, have no nucleus (DNA is free in cytoplasm), cell wall made of polysaccharide, no mitochondria, small ribosomes. Eukaryotes are larger, DNA is linear and inside nucleus, cellulose or chitin cell wall.
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What is the difference in the ultra structure of plant and animals cells?
Plant cells contain the same organelles as animal cells but also contain a cell wall with plasmodesmata ('channels' for exchanging substances with adjacent cells), a vacuole and chloroplasts for photosynthesis.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Explain the difference between magnification and resolution.

Back

Magnification is how much larger the image is than the specimen. Resolution is how detailed the image is, and how well a microscope distinguishes between two points that are close together.

Card 3

Front

Explain the need for staining samples for use in light microscopy and electron microscopy.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How do you calculate the linear magnification of an image?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Outline the functions of the organelles inside a cell.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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