Memory Unit 1

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  • Created by: CorinneC
  • Created on: 26-04-16 17:42
What is the Multi Store Model?
Memory is not a single process but involves more than one stage and more than one kind of memory. There is a flow of information through the memory system. Sensory memory -given attention/decays-> STM (temporarily)-->LTM (permanent storage)
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What is Encoding?
Process of changing information to be remembered into a form which makes it suitable for the memory store to deal with.
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What is Capacity?
The amount of information that can be held within the memory store.
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What is Duration?
How long information can be held in each store for.
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What is the capacity, duration and encoding for all 3 stores of memory?
Sensory: 12 pieces, 0.5 seconds, impressions. STM: 7+/- 2 items, 20 seconds, acoustically. LTM: unlimited, number of mins, years or lifetime, semantically.
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What are the levels of processing (Craik & Lockhart)?
~Shallow (basic) dependent on the appearance of the item (iconic) e.g is the word in capital letters. ~Phonemic (medium) sound of the item (echonic) e.g does the word rhyme with train. ~Semantic (deep) meaning of item e.g is the word a type of friut
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What is the Working memory model?
Developed by Baddely and Hitch on the STM. Process that integrates both auditory & visual. Through 'inner eye & voice' the visuospatial sketchpad & phonological loop work as slave systems to central executive. Episodic buffer=combines info (temporary
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Evaluate the working memory model
~ Application, diagnose learning difficulties in children. ~ Listening american football on the radio impaired driving ability while listening to music doesn't, vssp cant cope with 2 tasks simultaneously (game & roads)~PET scans~neglects other senses
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What is the Yerkes-Dodson Law?
There is a relationship between anxiety and performance on tasks like remembering events. If anxiety is low performance is poor, when anxiety is high performance is poor, it is a its best when at medium which makes them very reliable at EWT.
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What is a cognitive interview?
This is used by police in an attempt to gain maximum info from witnesses. ~Report everything even if it is unrelated (retrieval cue) ~Re-create the context, imagine yourself back at scene. ~ Remember event in different orders. ~ Change perspective.
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What are the criticisms of cognitive interview?
~alot is irrelevant information. ~needs more time than is available to police. ~ unsuitable for young children. ~doesnt work to identify suspect. ~context reinstatement & report everything most effective.
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What are the levels of processing?
Craik and Lockhart claim that there are 3 levels at which we process information. Structural - thinking about what something looks like. Phonetic - thinking about what something sounds like. Semantic - thinking about the meaning.
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What is method of loci in memory improvement?
Plan a route around home and create visual images that link with items you want to remember e.g bread in bed.when in the shop visually walk round the house.
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Method of loci - evidence for and limitations?
Groniger - more useful than just learning words and stays in memory for longer. ~only remember a short amount of items. ~difficult to think of many everyday situations which it is useful. ~lacking ecological validity.
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What is categorical clustering? evidence for and limitations?
They are divided up into meaningful clusters. Bousfield- recall they remembered things in clusters so they had organised things to aid recall. Lack ecological validity as we are not asked to recall long words lists in real life.
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What is hierarchical organisation? evidence for and limitations?
Use of hierarchies as well as categories. Bower - 112 words presented randomly or in conceptual hierarchy, 45% higher recall for ch than random. lacks ecological validity.
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What is imagery? evidence for an limitations?
encourage people to form images. Bower - 80% remebered in group that were asked to form images to link the two words of each pair. 45% in condition where asked to just learn them. Cant be generalised as no ne learns in the same way.
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Card 2


What is Encoding?


Process of changing information to be remembered into a form which makes it suitable for the memory store to deal with.

Card 3


What is Capacity?


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Card 4


What is Duration?


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Card 5


What is the capacity, duration and encoding for all 3 stores of memory?


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