memory ; exp. 4 forgetting ; retrieval failure

what does this suggest forgetting information may be because?
insufficient cues
1 of 47
when are associated cues stored in memory?
when information is initially placed there
2 of 47
so then what is retrieval failure?
lack of available cues at time of recall
3 of 47
so we don't really forget we just?
are inable to access memories that are there
4 of 47
encoding specificity principle (esp)
5 of 47
what did tulving do?
reviewed retrieval failure research
6 of 47
and discovered what kind of pattern?
7 of 47
what did he summarise this pattern into?
encoding specificity principle
8 of 47
what does this state about cues?
if they are to help us recall information they it has to be there at encoing and at retrieval
9 of 47
so what does this mean if cues available at coding and retrieval are different?
there'll be some forgetting
10 of 47
give an example of how term 'stm' can be used as a meaningful cue?
may lead to recall all sorts of informatio nabout short-term memory
11 of 47
when are these cues used?
in mnemonic techniques
12 of 47
other cues aren't meaningfully linked and can be categoriesed as?
internal cues and external cues
13 of 47
which lead to which two types of forgetting
context-dependent forgetting (ext.) and state-dependent forgetting (int.)
14 of 47
context-depended forgetting
15 of 47
who did godden and baddeley study?
deep sea divers
16 of 47
in this situation what is it crucial for divers to do?
remember instructions given before diving
17 of 47
in this study where did the two groups of divers learn the information?
either underwater or on land
18 of 47
which created how many conditions?
19 of 47
which were?
learn + recall land / learn + recall water / learn land rec water / learn water rec land
20 of 47
was there more accurate recall in the matching or non-matching conditions?
21 of 47
how much lower was accurate recall in non-matching (%)?
22 of 47
why did this retrieval failure come about in terms of cues?
external cues available at learning and recall were different
23 of 47
state-dependent forgetting
24 of 47
what did carter and cassaday give to pps?
25 of 47
what did the mild sedative in them make pps do?
feel slightly drowsy
26 of 47
what does this create?
internal physiological state diff from 'normal' being awake and alert
27 of 47
what did pps have to learn and recall?
lists of words and prose passages
28 of 47
how many conditions?
29 of 47
which were?
learn + recall drugged up / learn + recall not drugged up / learn drugged but not recall / recall drugged but not learn
30 of 47
in which set of conditions was performance on memory test significantly worse?
those with a mismatch in internal state
31 of 47
so what does this mean for cues?
when cues absent more forgetting
32 of 47
33 of 47
:) supporting evidence
34 of 47
what are the two studies we literally just talked about?
scuba divers and antihistemines
35 of 47
what does this supporting evidence increas?
the validity
36 of 47
why is this especially true in this rsrch?
real-life situations AND lab
37 of 47
:( questioning context effects
38 of 47
what does baddeley argue?
context effects aren't that strong esp in real life
39 of 47
different contexts have to be what before effect seen?
dramamtically different
40 of 47
why is this a limitation with regards to the real-life aplications?
means they don't rlly explain much forgetting bc of contextual cues
41 of 47
:( recal v recognition
42 of 47
what might context effect be related to?
kind of memory being tested
43 of 47
what did godden and baddeley do when replicating underwater exp?
gave recogntion > recall test
44 of 47
pps had to say whether they recognised a word read to them instead of retrieving for themselves
45 of 47
was there any context-dependent effect when recognition tested?
46 of 47
why is this a further limitation of context effects?
means presence + absense cues only affects recall not recognition
47 of 47

Other cards in this set

Card 2


when are associated cues stored in memory?


when information is initially placed there

Card 3


so then what is retrieval failure?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


so we don't really forget we just?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


encoding specificity principle (esp)


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Memory resources »