memory ; exp. 4 forgetting ; retrieval failure

what does this suggest forgetting information may be because?
insufficient cues
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when are associated cues stored in memory?
when information is initially placed there
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so then what is retrieval failure?
lack of available cues at time of recall
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so we don't really forget we just?
are inable to access memories that are there
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encoding specificity principle (esp)
dsignd
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what did tulving do?
reviewed retrieval failure research
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and discovered what kind of pattern?
consistent
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what did he summarise this pattern into?
encoding specificity principle
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what does this state about cues?
if they are to help us recall information they it has to be there at encoing and at retrieval
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so what does this mean if cues available at coding and retrieval are different?
there'll be some forgetting
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give an example of how term 'stm' can be used as a meaningful cue?
may lead to recall all sorts of informatio nabout short-term memory
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when are these cues used?
in mnemonic techniques
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other cues aren't meaningfully linked and can be categoriesed as?
internal cues and external cues
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which lead to which two types of forgetting
context-dependent forgetting (ext.) and state-dependent forgetting (int.)
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context-depended forgetting
sniddsfs
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who did godden and baddeley study?
deep sea divers
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in this situation what is it crucial for divers to do?
remember instructions given before diving
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in this study where did the two groups of divers learn the information?
either underwater or on land
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which created how many conditions?
four
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which were?
learn + recall land / learn + recall water / learn land rec water / learn water rec land
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was there more accurate recall in the matching or non-matching conditions?
matching
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how much lower was accurate recall in non-matching (%)?
40%
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why did this retrieval failure come about in terms of cues?
external cues available at learning and recall were different
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state-dependent forgetting
dfioogndfg
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what did carter and cassaday give to pps?
anti-histamines
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what did the mild sedative in them make pps do?
feel slightly drowsy
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what does this create?
internal physiological state diff from 'normal' being awake and alert
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what did pps have to learn and recall?
lists of words and prose passages
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how many conditions?
four
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which were?
learn + recall drugged up / learn + recall not drugged up / learn drugged but not recall / recall drugged but not learn
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in which set of conditions was performance on memory test significantly worse?
those with a mismatch in internal state
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so what does this mean for cues?
when cues absent more forgetting
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EVALUATION
DIFGND
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:) supporting evidence
fifgndfig
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what are the two studies we literally just talked about?
scuba divers and antihistemines
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what does this supporting evidence increas?
the validity
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why is this especially true in this rsrch?
real-life situations AND lab
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:( questioning context effects
dogndf
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what does baddeley argue?
context effects aren't that strong esp in real life
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different contexts have to be what before effect seen?
dramamtically different
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why is this a limitation with regards to the real-life aplications?
means they don't rlly explain much forgetting bc of contextual cues
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:( recal v recognition
digdfgdf
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what might context effect be related to?
kind of memory being tested
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what did godden and baddeley do when replicating underwater exp?
gave recogntion > recall test
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meaning?
pps had to say whether they recognised a word read to them instead of retrieving for themselves
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was there any context-dependent effect when recognition tested?
no
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why is this a further limitation of context effects?
means presence + absense cues only affects recall not recognition
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

when are associated cues stored in memory?

Back

when information is initially placed there

Card 3

Front

so then what is retrieval failure?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

so we don't really forget we just?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

encoding specificity principle (esp)

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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