Managing people

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What is a leader
Someone who sets the businesses overall goals and targets for other people. They will guide and encourage.
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What is a manager
A manager will set goals and targets for the aspects of the business that they are responsible for.
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Who makes decisions in a business
The leaders or managers.
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What do managers do
management theorist defined management as 'the art of getting things done through people'. This means that managers will have to carry out certain roles to meet their responsibilities.
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What are the 4 main duties of a manager?
Organising: Bringing together the nexessary recesses, planning:looking into the feature, Reporting: communicating with relevant people (customers, suppliers and more senior managers, Monitoring and evaluating: assessing past performance, and improvin
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what is involved in planning
to co-ordinate the businesses activities so that moving forward is focused. sets targets. forecast sales. financial planning. recourse planning.
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what is involved in organising
ensure that all staff are trained. are supplying good quality stock and service to customers. keep record or sales and staff. ensure bills are paid. be aware of customers and reviews.
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what is involved in monitoring and evaluating
how effective is that business? evaluate the managers effectiveness. monitoring helps managers to improve.
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what is involved in reporting.
this can take place in many forms. Annual reports and accounts, other financial information, market research, employee performance.
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what are the 4 key management skills?
1) technical skills 2)Communication skills 3)organisational skills 4) interpersonal skills
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what are technical skills
The managers specific role within the organisation will determine the need for a particular range of technical skills
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communication skills
managers need a range of communication skills to carry out jobs effectively. they need to be able to articulate ideas. argue points cogently.
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organisational skill
to organise people and resources effectively to be successful. Plan workload. time management. creating effective teams
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interpersonal skills
these are essential for the manager to be able to work successfully with other people.
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What are organisational structures
the way that a business is arranged in order to carry out its activities.
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what are levels of hierarchy
this refers to the numbers of layers of authority within an organisation
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what is span of control
the number of subordinates reporting directly to a manager
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what is centralisation
places decision-making powers firmly in the hands of senior personnel (often at head office)
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what is decentralisation
give decision-making powers to those at lower levels in the organisation and to empoyees in branch offices
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what is delayering
it is the removal of one or more layers
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explain tall organisational structure
with narrow spans of control, enables managers to keep close control over the activities of their subordinates.
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explain flat organisational structures
this occurs generally due to delayering. can mean that junior employees are empowered as they are making more work related decisions.
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explain centralisation
where the majority of decisions are taken by senior managers at the top (or centre)
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explain decentralisation
this gives greater authority to staff lower down the organisational structure.
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what is a matrix structure
this is a structure which is fluid which teams with employees with appropriate skills are assembled to carry out particular tasks.
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what do leaders do?
set objectives. set standards for the business. recognise skills that exist within the organisation and make effective use of them. shape the culture of the business. leaders may become role models.
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name the styles or types of leaderships
autocratic. paternalistic. democratic. participative. laissez-faire.
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what is autocratic
give very little freedom. communication tends to be downwards, the give instructions. they state objectives they expect employees to pursue.
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what is paternalistic leadership
it is broadly autocratic, but also take interest in their workforce into account when making decisions. they retain the majority of the power over staff.
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what is democratic leadership
it is very simular to full participative leadership. this type of leadership generally allows subordinates to play a full role in making decisions.
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what is participative leadership
this is where the business leaders fully involve one or more employees in making decisions.
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list some skills of leadership
physical vitality, intelegence, judgement, eagerness for responsibility, understanding of subordinates, skills in dealing with people, capacity to motivate, courage and resolution, trustworthy, decisiveness, self-confidence, assertiveness, flexible
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what is style versatility
when a leader is able to have more than one leadership style, the best leaders are able to do this.
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what is a example of traditional authority?
the royal family have power due to tradition
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what is charismatic authority
this is when authority arises out of an individuals personality
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what are the 5 sources of power?
1) coercive power 2)reward power 3)expert power 4)legitimate power 5) referent power
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what is coercive power
this is based on the subordinates fear of the leader. this is a aggressive type of power that can be gained out of violence and aggressive language.
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what is reward power
this is the ability to provide rewards for followers and gives leaders a form of power
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what is expert power
this is from possession of particular expertise, skills and knowledge.
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what is legitamate power
this derives from a person's position or job in an organisation. this power increases as you go up an organisations hierarchy.
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referent power
this derives from a leaders charisma, people are more likely to follow the lead of someone they admire.
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what is mallows hierarchy of needs
these are 5 levels of needs which maslow believed every employee wants to satisfy through work.
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what is fredericks herxbergs two factor theory
satisfaction and dissatisfaction arose from 2 different factors. the following enhance satisfaction - achievement, responsibility, growth, recognition. these are what dissatisfy - salary, status, colleagues, company policy, supervision, admin
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what is douglas mcgregors theory X employee like?
the average employee will dislike work and will avoid if posible, if unsupervised they will not perform well, motivated by money, employees are not ambitions
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what is douglas mcgregors theory Y employee like?
effort to work is as natural as work and play, employees are able to work efficiently with out supervision, committed to objectives, employees usually accept and seek responsibility, creative and want to use skills at work, employees seek satisfactio
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what are the types of decisions within business
1) routine and non-routine 2) tactical and strategic decisions 3) Proactive and reactive decisions
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what is routine and non-routine decisions
routine decisions are taken regularly, for example making rotas, employing new part-time staff for the weekend, ordering stock, making minor changes to shop layout
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what are tactical and strategic decisions
tactical decisions are based on short-term factors. where as strategic decisions are those that have long term implications
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what are proactive decisions
this is a decision that is taken in advance of events.
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what are reactive decisions
this is when aa business responds to events
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what are examples of decision-making models
1) Critical path analysis 2) Statistical process control 3) decision trees
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What is critical path analysis
this is a type of network analysis, it calcuates and illustrates how complex projects can be completed quickly
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what is statistical process control
this can also be known as control charts uses a monitoring system based on statistic to make sure that production is efficient.
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what are decision trees
these are a more general technique which helps managers to take decisions.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A manager will set goals and targets for the aspects of the business that they are responsible for.

Back

What is a manager

Card 3

Front

The leaders or managers.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

management theorist defined management as 'the art of getting things done through people'. This means that managers will have to carry out certain roles to meet their responsibilities.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Organising: Bringing together the nexessary recesses, planning:looking into the feature, Reporting: communicating with relevant people (customers, suppliers and more senior managers, Monitoring and evaluating: assessing past performance, and improvin

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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