Managing people


Topic 2

Key words

Levels of hierarchy- refers to the number of layers of authority within an organisation

The span of control- os the number of subordinates reporting directly to a manager

Centralisaton- places decision-making powers firmly in the hands of senior personnel often at head office

Dentralisation- is the opposite it gives decisions making powers to those at lower levels in the organisation and to employees in branch officexs and other locations

Delayering- is the removal of one or more layers of hieracrhy from the organisational structure

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Topic 4

Key words

Power- exists when one person can get another person to do something otherwise they would not want to do

Authority- is a special form of power in the sense that it gives people the right to give commands which other accpet as legitmate

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Topic 6

Key words

Empowerment- is the process of allowing subordinates to have greater control over their working lives by for example letting them make many of their own decisions

Delegation- is the passing down of authority to a junior employee for a particular task this is often limited tp specfic tasks and activities in constrast empowerment is a more general philsophy of passing down authority and control

Job enrichment- is the process of designing jobs containing tasks of varying complexity that allows employees to use their abililites to a greater extent

Job enlargement- extends the range of duties associated with a particular job

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1. Autocratic or Authoriarian leadership

They give little freedom to junior employees to take decisions, preferring to retain control

Communications tends to be downwards they give junior employees instructions and tasks

Autocratic leaders state objectives they expect employees to persue in other words they allocate tasks and demand that subordinates act on their decisions

2. Paternalistic leadership

Is broadly autorcractic but patnernalistic leaders thake the interests of the workforce into account when making decisions they consult with junior employees over decisions and taske some notice of the views expressed by subordinates

Paternalistic leaders regard their staff as part of an extended family. they feel they have a duty of care to their employees

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3. Democratic leadership

Delegate some decision making powers to subordinates which can help to develop managerial skills in junior employees

Encorage junior employees to express views and ideas which can help enhance the creativity of the management team

Listen to junior employees views and explain why particular decisions have been taken

4. Participative leadership

this style of leadership has similar advantages to democratic leadership byt arguably the benefits are more pronounced it allows managers to utilise the talents and creativity of subordinates to the fullest extent.

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5. Laissez-faire leadership 

Means " leave alone" amd this accurately describes this style of democratic leadership.

The leader or manager leads a well qualified and experienced team of employees

Subordinates are highly motivated and supportive of the manager

The leader and the employees are all pursuing the same objectives

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