a2 Applied Business

  • Created by: sade
  • Created on: 10-02-15 17:51
Management: role, responsibilities and skills
Setting Targets, Forecasting, Planning marketing, Estimating, Planning resources, Organising, Monitoring and Evaluating, Reporting
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Key Management skills
Organisational skills, Setting Acheivable Targets, Planning workload, Time management, Creating effective teams, Interpersonal skills
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Understanding organisational structures
Routes of communication, Structure of authority, Roles and titles, Accountable, Responsible
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Levels of hierarchy
Refer to the number of layers of authority within an organisation
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Span of Control
The number of subordinates reporting directly to manager
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Places decision-making powers firmly in the hands of senior personnel (often at head office)
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Gives decision-making powers to those at lower levels in the organisation and to employees in brand offices and other location
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Pros of decentralisation
Can improve motivation as junior employees are given greater authority, Reduces senior managers’ workload, Better understanding for junior- gain promotion
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Is the removal of one or more layers of hierarchy
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Pros of delayering
Improve, competitiveness, Greater responsibilities, Better communication
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Con of delayering
Lost knowledge, Fear of losing their job, Training cost, Heavy workload
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Tall organisation structure
With narrow spans of control, enables managers to keep close control over the activities of their subordinates
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Flat organisation structure
Means the employees are more empowered and take on more work-related decisions themselves.
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Matrix Structures
Fluid one in which teams of employees with appropriate skills are assembled to carry out particular task.
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Pro of Matrix Structures
embodies flexibility, It is temporary, For projects, Enhances communication
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Con of Matrix Structure
Two bosses, Priortise, Expensive
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What do leaders do?
Set objectives and a direction for the business, set standards, recognise skill and make efficent use of human talent
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Little freedom, downwards communication, dependent stass, harsh critics, forceful approach
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Broadly autocratic, Consult employees, Retain control, delegate minor decisions to subordinates, doesn't encourage creativity
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Delegate some decision making power to subordinates, encouragne junior employees to express views, listens to employees, raise morale, takes longer for decison making
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Highly democractic, leadership style, giving employyes a high degree of control over decision making, slower decison making
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Subordinates are highly motivated and supportive, pursuing same objectives, experienced team of employees
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The skill of leadership
Stamina, Intelligence, Judgement, responsibility, understanding of subordinates, capacity to motivate, courage, trustworthiness, decisiveness, self-confidence, flexibility
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Style Verasatility
managers will need trained to help them move away from their natural style of leadership
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distinguishing between power and authority
Traditional (royalty) , charistmatic (people), Rational/legal
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Managers who are perceived to lack authority are likely to experience difficulty in leading and controlling subordinates
Subordinates may: question leader's decison, waste time criticsing, ignore manager's decision
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Sources of power
Coercive power (fear), reward power, expert power, legitmate position power, referent power (admire)
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Motivation means:
low absenteeism, highly productive, more likely to offer ideas, low labour turnover
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Maslows's hierarchy of needs
physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs, self actualisation
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Freberick Herzberg's factors that enhance job satisfaction
Achievement, regonition for achievement, work it self, responsibility, growth, advancement
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Frederick Herzberg's factors causes dissatisfaction
company policy, adminstration, supervision, interpersonal relationship, working conditions, salary, status, security
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Douglas McGregor: Theory X managers
Avoids work, wont perform efficiently, motivated by money, avoid responsiblity, not ambitious
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Douglas McGregor’s: Theory Y managers
Work is natural, commited, seek responsibilty, ingenuity and creativity, seek satisfaction from work
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Motivation skilled and unskilled employees
Organising work in teams - social needs. Offering chance of promotion, Enriching jobs
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Motivating manual workers and knowledge-based employees
Extending the range or diversity of tasks, Job enrichment
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Motivating older people
Older people might be financially secure by will fear losing their job and coping with new position
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Motivating younger people
Younger may be more motivated by the opportunities offered at young age
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Motivation and paid and voluntary work
desire to help others, keep active or social needs, recognition of achievements
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Motivation: Flat and matrix organisational structures
Freedom, spread decisions, task oriented
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Motivation: Tall organisational structures
Fiancial rewards, emphasis on status
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decisions are difficult when
Do not have enough information, they lack experience, a decision is needed quickly
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Types of decisions: routine
agreeing staff rotas, appointign new part time, ordering stock, minor changes to layout, reducing prices
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Types of decisions: non routine
responding to emergency, making location decisions
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Types of decisions: Tactical
Based on short term factors
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Types of decisions: Strategic
Based on long term implications
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Types of decisions: Proactive
To shape market developments
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Types of decisions: reactive
Responding to events of the market
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Critical path analysis
illustrating how complex projects can be completed as quickly as possible
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Pros of Critical path analysis
Time efficient, minimise cost, make informed decisions
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Cons of Critial path analysis
External factors may change, information is not accurate, some is too large to be represented on CPA
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Statistical process control
A statistic is created and when a problem is arising the manager is told
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Decision trees
help to reduce the amount of uncertainty of any decisions
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Pros of decision trees
encourage managers to be logical, more useful when making routine decisions
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Cons of decision trees
it is diffficult to get accurate data, external changes
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Key Management skills


Organisational skills, Setting Acheivable Targets, Planning workload, Time management, Creating effective teams, Interpersonal skills

Card 3


Understanding organisational structures


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Levels of hierarchy


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Span of Control


Preview of the front of card 5
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