Lewine et al (clinical/schiz)

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what is the aim?
to see if schizophrenia can be explained by sex differences in the brain, specifically to see the brain differences between schizo and non schizo males and females
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how many schizophrenic participants of each gender?
4 females and 27 males
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how many control group participants of each gender?
12 females and 16 males
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how was the sample collected
schizos recruited by professionals being contacted who then contacted social workers who contacted the individual schizos. control group contacted through a newspaper ad: volunteer sample.
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were they on medication?
most of the schizos were on anti-psychotics but none of the control group were on medication that had psychological effects
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what was the actual procedure?
had an MRI scan done which focused particularly on the corpus callosum which connects the left and the right hemisphere of the brain. a positive scans means there were abnormalities and a negative scan meant there were no abnormalities.
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what were the results?
1.0% of schizo females had positive scan whereas 33% of males did 2.in general, 64% of females had normal corpus callosum whereas only 38% of males did. 3.male schizos most likely group to have abnormal corpus callosum
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what was the conclusion?
schizophrenia could be a condition linked to the male brain as the group with the most unusual corpus callosum was the men
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generalisability
small sample size : e.g. The four schizo women could have had abnormal brain functioning which would skew the results. also volunteer sample but Lewine would say that doesnt matter bc brain scan
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reliability
brain scans are a scientific and reliable research method : objective no human interference and also still room for error in the interpretation of the brain scans even though unlikely
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applicability
applicable to preventing schizophrenia by potentially altering brains to stop the onset of the disorder. also applicable to improving treatments by having them start earlier if a brain condition.
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validity
emotions and behaviour don't affect the results because it is a structural brain scan
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ethics
competency of scientists carrying out the brain scans, distressing being in an MRI scanner, informed consent bc demand characteristics don't matter bc brain scan
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how many schizophrenic participants of each gender?

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4 females and 27 males

Card 3

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how many control group participants of each gender?

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Card 4

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how was the sample collected

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Card 5

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were they on medication?

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