Learning to Be Happy 2

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What is learning?
The acquisition, or the process by which behavior is added to an organism's repertory, a relatively permanent change in behavior
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What is operant learning?
Operant behavior can be modified by its consequences. If the consequences are not strong enough the behavior will not be modified. Operant behaviors are learned, and are different to reflexes.
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What are the three main kinds of stimuli that happen as a result of behavior?
1. Reinforcement 2. Punishment 3; Neutral or weak events have no impact on the future probability of behavior
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What is Thorndike's Law of Effect?
Behaviors that resulted in the cage opening were strengthened and occurred again (cat in a cage) - using a lever was reinforced
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What is a reinforcer?
A consequence that follows a behavior that makes that behavior stronger
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What is positive reinforcement?
Stimulus is added to the environment after a behavior occurs. increases the probability that the behavior will occur again
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What is negative reinforcement?
Aversive stimulus is removed contingent upon a behavior. Increases the probability that the behavior will occur again
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What is positive punishment?
Stimulus is added to the environment after a behavior occurs. Decreases the probability that the behavior will occur again.
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What is negative punishment?
Stimulus removed from the environment after a behavior occurs. Decreases the probability that the behavior will occur again.
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What are unconditioned consequences?
Stimuli that are naturally reinforcing because they have survival value
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What are conditioned consequences?
Stimuli that become reinforcing because they are paired with unconditioned reinforcers or existing reinforcers
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What are examples of unconditioned reinforcers?
Food, water, sexual stimulation, warmth
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What are examples of unconditioned punishers?
Food/water deprivation, Sexual deprivation, extreme temperature, extreme noise/light, pain
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What are examples of conditioned reinforcers?
Money, praise, awards, grades, job titles, designer clothes
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What are examples of conditioned punishers?
Being told 'no', disapproval, parking tickets, low marks
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What is extinction?
removing reinforcement for a previously reinforced behavior
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What is extinction affected by?
Schedule of reinforcers, history of reinforcement, consistent application
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What is operant behavior?
Controlled by their consequences
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What is respondent behavior?
Controlled by antecedent stimuli
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What are unconditioned stimuli?
A stimulus change that elicits respondent behavior without any prior learning
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Examples of unconditioned responses
blinking, salivating, pupils constricting, sweating, shivering, sneezing
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What is classical conditioning?
When a neutral stimuli (NS) is paired with a conditioned stimuli, it will elicit the conditioned response
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is operant learning?

Back

Operant behavior can be modified by its consequences. If the consequences are not strong enough the behavior will not be modified. Operant behaviors are learned, and are different to reflexes.

Card 3

Front

What are the three main kinds of stimuli that happen as a result of behavior?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is Thorndike's Law of Effect?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a reinforcer?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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