Emotion researchers

  • Created by: freya_bc
  • Created on: 03-01-17 11:39
Watson and Clark (1994)
Definition of emotions- distinct, integrated, psychophysiological response systems...an emotion contains 3 differentiable response systems- a prototypic form of expression/facial, a pattern of consistent autonomic changes &distinct/subjective feeling
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GSR
Galvanic schema response
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Lang (1971)
Different components of emotion- behavioural, physiological and cognitive/verbal
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Arnold
basic emotions- anger, aversion, courage, dejection, desire, despair, fear, hate, hope, love and sadness
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James
fear, grief, love and rage
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The big 5 emotions?
anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness
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Ekman et al (1971,72)
Facial recog of emotion studies
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Ekman (1999)
Distinct universal signals, distinct physiology, present in other primates, quick onset, brief duration, distinct thoughts/memories/images/subjective experience
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Lang (1988)
An affect grid- 2 dimensions valence (+/-) and arousal. International Affective Picture System (IAPS) to plot images on grid
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James- Lange Theory
stim > sensory perception > bodily changes spec autonomic arousal feedback from bodily changes/physiological signals >emotion
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Cannon-Bard Theory
stim > sensory perception> general autonomic arousal change at same time as experiencing emotion due to activity in thalamus or particular emotion experienced simultaneously
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Schachter and Singer
Cognitive theory/arousal interpretation theory stim >percpetion> autonomic >cog appraisls from prev knowledge >emotion. Factors high physiological arousal, emotional interpretation of arousal (cog compon)
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Schachter and Singer (1962) study
suproxin deception- euphoria groups misinformed felt happiest then ignorant then informed, angry groups ignorant felt angriest then placebo/control, informed. If couldnt attribute emotion to drug felt most intense emotion
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Schachter and Singer (1962) study conclusion
Despite identifcal phys response in adrenaline groups, experience of emotion influenced by info previously given and situ/context in- support cog component of experience of emotion
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Zajonc (1984)
emotiona and cog seperate and spatially indep systems. mere exposure effect- affective primacy debate- does emotion precede cognition? YES so cog not required for an emotional experience
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Murphy and Zajonc (1993)
Chinese ideograph rate how much like, prior to stim shown prime happy/angry face for 1s or 4ms, 4ms prime signif dif likign rating
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Lazarus (1982)
cog appraisal or meaning/signif underlies and is integral feature of emotional states- made appraisal theory
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Spesiman, Lazarus, Mordkoff, Davdison (1964)
shown anxiety evoking films with no soundtrack, trauma narrative, denial narrative, scientific narrative last 2 reduced emotional response- manip appraisals influences an emotional response
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Lazarus- 3 types of appraisal?
Primary, secondary, reappraisal
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Smith and Lazarus (1993)
6 appraisal components- motivational relevance, motivational congruence, accountability, problem-focused coping potential, emotion-focused coping potential, future expectancy
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Bower (1981)
recall best when mood state at learning/encoding same as retrieval recall, experimentally used naturally occurring mood states
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Bower, Gilligan, Monteiro (1981)
Used hypnosis as a mood induction procedure - imagine happy or sad experiences
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Niedenthal and Setterlund (1994)
listened to happy or sad music as mood induction procedure
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Velten (1968)
reading vigenettes as a mood induction procedure short sentences to increase feelings of sad/happy
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Bower (1981)
hypnotic mood induction pp learn 2 lists of neutral words (each in dif mood) sad group learn a then happy learn b, half happy learn a sad learn b re-induce mood when learn in sad recall better retention when also in sad mood and vice versa
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Bower (1981)
Semantic Network theory of effect- emotions are nodes/units in semantic network/network of related ideas, having connections to related ideas/phys systems/events/expressive patterns sadness- loss/disappear/someone who upset you/ inhibit happiness
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Varner and Ellis (1998)
4 groups pp depressed mood induction, schema induction, neutral mood, arousal mood. Dep assoc word lost and one essay writing word list more likely to remember dep words if felt dep no congruity for arousal condition, cog essay writing recall schema
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Clark and Teasdale (1982)
tested depressive patients on two occasions, severity of depression being different. When dep more severe, fewer happy memories reported- consistent wth depression vicious cycle
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Stroop task
Ink congruent or incongruent with colour word
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Emotional stroop
shown emotional and neutral words in dif coloured ink- asked to name ink colour- emotional meaning of word captures attention away from relevant stim attribute
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Van Honk et al (2001)
ignore face itself and name colour of face- colour naming latencies slower for angry faces- attentional bias to angry faces
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MacLeod, Matthews, Tata (1986)
emotional (threat-related) and neutral info presented to anx patients and control, for controls positive bias for neutral whereas opposite for anx because threatening stim capture/hold attention- prevent attention disengagement- attentional bias
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MacLeod and Matthews (1988)
tested high and low trait anx groups of students using DP 1 week and 12 weeks before important exam- more likely anx week before exam, 1 week before only high trait anx showed bias towards threat, 12 weeks before neither group showed any bias
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Eysenck, MacLeod, Matthews (1987)
homonym task- present words auditorily e.g. pain/pane- semantic interpretation- difficult/ambiguous, pp write down words high trait anx= more threat related spellings e.g. die
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Richards and French (1992)
homographs- greater priming effect for target words related in meaning to negative interpretation of the prime for anx- interpretative bias for high anx pp/interp related ingo that biased in high trait anx people
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Ohman (1999)
evolutionarily adaptive for us to detect threat quickly/automatically visual threat related stim
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Hansen and Hansen (1988) exp 1
3x3 grid 9 dif faces half trials all same emotion half one discrepant emotion- anger superiority effect- spot angry face more easily than neutral/happy one
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Hansen and Hansen (1988) exp 2
4 faces all containing discrepant face briefly then masked with scramble letters- angry face in happy crowd or happy face in angry- less time to locate angry face
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Hansen and Hansen (1988) exp 3
2x2 or 3x3 matrix- angry faces detected relatively rapidly in happy and neutral crowds - serial search for happy in another crowd pop out for angry faces
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Purcell et al (1996)
couldn't replicate - detection of angry faces result of visual artefact of stim- dark patches on angry faces confounding interpretation of data and not emotion
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GSR

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Galvanic schema response

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Lang (1971)

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Arnold

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James

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