# Learning methodology

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Define observations.
When watching is the main way of obtaining data and no manipulation of the independent variable is involved.
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What are the two types of observations?
Structured and naturalistic.
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What is a structured observation?
All data is collected by observation but the setting is not natural.
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What are naturalistic observations?
Where the observation takes place in the participant's normal setting.
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What are the 2 types of naturalistic observations?
Participant and non-participant observations.
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What is a participant observation?
Where the observer is also a participant.
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What is a non-participant observation?
Where the observer is not part of the situation.
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What are overt observations?
Where participants know that they are being observed and possibly know why.
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What are covert observations?
Where participants don't know that they are being observed.
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What are the 4 steps to setting out an observation?
1) Watch situation and note behaviours. 2) Define behaviours and how they will be measured. 3) Establish arrangements (e.g charts). 4) Carry out observation.
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Give 2 positives and 2 negatives for naturalistic observations.
More ecologically valid, more practical. Cant imply cause and effect as there are no controls, lack reliability as not replicable. Converse for structured.
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Give one positive and 3 negatives for overt observations.
There is no deception as informed consent is given. There are more experimenter effects, there are demand characteristics and it is less practical. The converse is true for covert.
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Give 2 positives and 1 negative to non-participant observations.
There are no experimenter effects and it is more practical, but it is less valid as participants are being watched.
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What are the three levels of measurement?
Nominal data (categories recorded), ordinal data (data is ranked) and interval/ratio data (scores have equal intervals between them, and are matheatical, such as time).
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What type of data is used for the Chi-squared test?
Nominal.
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What four steps do you take when chosing an inferential test?
1) Is it a test of a difference or relationship? 2) Which participant design is used (if testing a difference) 3) Which level of measurement is used? 4) Chose a test.
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When is the observed value likely to be significant?
When it is greater than the critical value.
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What happens when you find that your observed value is likely to be significant?
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

What are the two types of observations?

#### Back

Structured and naturalistic.

### Card 3

#### Front

What is a structured observation?

### Card 4

#### Front

What are naturalistic observations?

### Card 5

#### Front

What are the 2 types of naturalistic observations?