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Feature Psychodynamic Biological Learning
Methodology Dream analysis, free Genes, twin studies, Experiments/Observations
association, case scanning, DNA &
Nature Instincts (Id), Genes & hormones Born blank slate ignores
unconscious & inherited characteristics: no
development in stages: nature
phallic stage & libido,
Nurture Superego: morals, Experience & All nurture, e.g., parents,
conscience & gender environment can school, peers, society, role
behaviour from parents influence genes & models.
& society hormones, but
generally gender is
Scientific Not scientific, Very scientific, easier Experiments, so can isolate
subjective, difficult to to quantify, & control variables, but
prove scientifically & operationalise & so human behaviour still hard
measure empirically, measure to measure quantifiably.
cannot be falsified.
Changes over Stages through to 18 Development fixed at Learning is continuous &
time but gender birth & before, but lifelong through
development basically hormonal changes reinforcement so can
fixed by end of Phallic over time explain changes over time,
stage 1st 5 years by culture & across
1st 5 years, resolving Sex given at birth, but Early years important, lots of
conflicts generated in environment can learning takes place then
Phallic stage very affect gender,
important hormonal changes
Parental Child identifies with Parents give genes Parents usually main
contribution same sex parent, 50% each providers of reinforcement
values, behaviour etc. & role models, especially in
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Psychodynamic & Biological both use case studies, but in very different ways, e.g.,
Little Hans, & Money.
Psychodynamic & biological both allow some room for nurture influencing nature
(but only limited for biological).
Biological & learning are both very scientific in their approach, trying to generate
All acknowledge influence of parents on gender development, BUT in very different
Biological & learning are both far more scientific in their methodology, more
objective, less interpretative, easier to falsify.…read more