issues + debates ; gender + culture ; culture bias

CULTURE BIAS
DFGD
1 of 57
in '92 what % of the worlds psych researchers were american
64%
2 of 57
psychology is maily the study of?
white american males (everyone's favourite ppl)
3 of 57
- universality and bias
dgdfg
4 of 57
though psychs claim to have unearthed 'truths' about ppl all over world in reality?
findings only apply to particular groups stdied
5 of 57
critics argue mainstream psych has generally ignored?
culture as important inf on human behaviour
6 of 57
and bu doing so mistakenly assumed?
findings derived from studies in western cultures are worldwide
7 of 57
if norm / standard for a particular behaviour is judged only from standpt of one culture then what happens to cultural differences?
seen abnormal / inferior / unusual
8 of 57
what is this known as?
cultural bias
9 of 57
- ethnocentrism
dfgd
10 of 57
particular form of culture bias that believes?
superiority of ones own cultural grp
11 of 57
in psych this may be communicated through which view?
that behavs which don't conform to western model are underdeveloped
12 of 57
what attachment thing is a key example of this?
ainsworth's strange situation
13 of 57
which has been criticised for?
only reflecting norms / values us culture
14 of 57
what did ainsworth identify as the key defining variable of attachment type?
anxiety on separation
15 of 57
she suggested ideal attachment characterised by?
infant showing moderate distress when left alone
16 of 57
but what did this lead to?
minsinterpretation of child-rearing practices in other countries
17 of 57
e.g german mothers viewed?
cold and rejecting
18 of 57
thus strange situation revealed as?
inappropriate measure attachment type for non-us children
19 of 57
- cultural relativism
dfgdg
20 of 57
ainsworth's research is an example of an imposed etic why?
in assuming us-based model was norm she imposed own cultural understanding upon rest of world
21 of 57
what does an etic do?
look @ behaviour from outside of culture and attempts to describe those that are universal
22 of 57
an emic approach does what?
functions from inside certan cultures and id's behaviours sepcific to that culture
23 of 57
psychology has often been guilty of imposing an etic approach why?
aruge theories etc r universal when rlly came about through emic research
24 of 57
suggests psychs should be more mindful of what in rsrch?
cultural relativism
25 of 57
that things they discover may only?
make sense from perspective of culture they were in
26 of 57
and being able to recognise this is one way to avoid?
culture bias in rsrch
27 of 57
EVALUATIO
DFG
28 of 57
- individualism / collectivism
dfgd
29 of 57
often in past whe psychs made reference to culture they did so within context of what distinction?
individualist-collectivist
30 of 57
individualistic culture is associated with west wh are thought to value?
personal freedom / independence
31 of 57
collectivist like india and china said to pace more emohasis on?
interdependence / group needs
32 of 57
however what have critics argued about this distinction todya?
lazy to apply it to this age of incresad global communication / interconnectedness
33 of 57
takano and osaka found how many out of 15 studies that had no evidence of traditional distinction in us / japan compared studies?
14
34 of 57
this could suggest whata bout culture bias?
less of an issue than it was
35 of 57
- cultural relativism
dfgfd
36 of 57
what is a reminder to psychs of culturally specific nature of work?
imposed etic
37 of 57
however it shouldn't be aumed that?
all psych research is culturally relative and theres no such thing as universally human hevioaur
38 of 57
research suggests what are the same all over the human / animal world?
facial expressions for emotions
39 of 57
critiques of the strange situation shouldn't obscure the fact that some features of human attachmetn are universal like?
imitation / interactional synchrony
40 of 57
full understanding of human behaviour requires study of both?
universals and varaition among individual groups
41 of 57
- unfamiliarity with research tradition
sdgd
42 of 57
when conducting research in western cultures what is assumed?
pps familiarity with general aims / objectives scientific enquiry
43 of 57
but same knowledge and faith may not?
extend to cultures w/o this history
44 of 57
for this reason what may be exaggerated with locals?
demand characteristics
45 of 57
and this may have an adverse effect on what about research?
validity
46 of 57
EXTRA
DFGDF
47 of 57
- operationalisation
dsfsdf
48 of 57
in different cultures variables under review may not?
be experienced by same way by all pps
49 of 57
for example behavioural expression of emotions like aggression may give rise to?
diff behaviours in indigenous pop than west
50 of 57
in china invasion of personal space is normal where in west this may be viewed?
threatening / confrontational
51 of 57
issues like these affect interactions between?
resaercher pps / western - non pps in cross-cultural studies
52 of 57
- challenging 'implicit' assumptions
dfgdf
53 of 57
what is one of the great benefits of cross-cultural research?
may challenge typically western ways of thinking ad viewing world
54 of 57
being able to see some of knowledge / concepts we take for granted aren't shared bu others roun world may promote?
greater sensitivity to individual difference / cultural relativism in future
55 of 57
this counters what charge made against some psych theories in past?
scientific racism
56 of 57
but also means conclusions are likely to have more validity if include?
recognition of role of culture
57 of 57

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

in '92 what % of the worlds psych researchers were american

Back

64%

Card 3

Front

psychology is maily the study of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

- universality and bias

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

though psychs claim to have unearthed 'truths' about ppl all over world in reality?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all issues + debates resources »