International Perspectives on Contemporary Issues

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  • Created by: The Shrew
  • Created on: 06-05-16 17:20
Universalism- Relativism
Extreme Universalism= problem same across world/ Moderate Universalism= present across some cultures/ Extreme relativistic= culturally specific syndromes
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Different approaches to mental health becoming increasingly relativistic
Biomedical/ Psycho-dynamic- internal forces, childhood experiences/ Cognitive- faulty processes due to stressful situation/ Behavioural- learning theory/ Socio-cultural- society
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Emic-Etic paradigm
Etic= outside perspective- distant experience, comparing cultures, universal criteria/ Emic- inside perspective- from ps point of view, experience near
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Bromet et al
Comparing percentage of population with depression across 18 countries- 89,000 ps
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Consistency in symptoms- mild
Fatigue, sleep disturbance, low mood, poor concentration
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Consistency in symptoms- major
Guilt, worthlessness, agitation, slow movement, disturbed appetite
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Somatic symptoms
Non-western eg. China= more physical symptoms
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Psycho-somatic/ Somato-psychic
Effect mind has on body (Western)/ Effect body has on mind (non-Western)
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Feelings of guilt
Swiss 68%/ Canadian 48%/ Iranian 32%
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Schizophrenia symptoms
Delusions, Hallucinations, Disorganised speech, Grossly disorganised or catatonic behaviour, 2 or more negative symptoms
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Disability Adjusted Life Years
How many days off taken due to illness
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3 core symptoms seen across world
Emotional or social withdrawal, delusions, flat affect- emotionless
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Delusions of Grandeur
Urban> Rural
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Religious guilt
Jewish, Christianity> Buddhist, Islamic
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Visual or tactile hallucinations
Non European> European
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Visual hallucinations
Pakistani> Pakistani origin living in UK> British
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Auditory
British or Pakistani origin> Pakistani
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EE in relatives varies across cultures
Rural india= 8%/ Urban USA 67%- more sz
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Tseng
culture affects psychopathology in 6 ways
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Pathogenic effect
Culture causes mental illness- voodoo death- spontaneous death due to fear! Dhat syndrome- fear of losing semen- India
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Patho-selective effect
Culture influences reaction to stressful event- family suicide in Japan/ Amok- assulting or killing people indiscriminatly in Malaysia
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Patho-plastic effect
Syndromes influenced by culture- different types of sz delusions, social phobia in Japan
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Patho-elaborating effect
Culture exacerbates behaviours to make them pathological- Latah- South-East Asia- exaggerated response to surprise
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Patho-facilitative effect
Culture influences prevalence of disorder- More anorexia and substance abuse in developed countries
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Patho-reactive effect
The way the culture responds to psychopathology- Latin America- diagnosis of depression has spiritual associations- feel worse!
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Dhat syndrome
Hindu- semen one of 7 Dhatus- essential for immune system + physical and mental strength
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Susto
Children (and sometimes adults) in the Andes- usually brought on by fright- depression, anxiety, insomnia- soul lost through contact with supernatural forces
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Hwabyung
Korea- anger disease- victim of unfair situation- anger must be suppressed!
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Morita Therapy
Japanese- Buddhist ideas of harmony between client, family and society
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4 stages
Isolation, rest and inactivity/ Light occupational therapy/ Heavy occupational therapy/ More complex activities
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Naikan Therapy
Awareness of self without being judgemental
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Stigma- UK
Mentally ill- only just allowed on jury duty
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Lithuania
Not allowed in own home
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Korea
Not allowed in pools
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Asia
Not allowed on some flights
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Japan
Not allowed in some museums
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Card 2

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Different approaches to mental health becoming increasingly relativistic

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Biomedical/ Psycho-dynamic- internal forces, childhood experiences/ Cognitive- faulty processes due to stressful situation/ Behavioural- learning theory/ Socio-cultural- society

Card 3

Front

Emic-Etic paradigm

Back

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Card 4

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Bromet et al

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Card 5

Front

Consistency in symptoms- mild

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