Social Psychology 4

What is the Availability Heuristic?
How easily something comes to mind. The mental strategy to judge probability/frequency based on the ease with which (and the amount of) information can be brought to mind (recalled).
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Who did a study on the availability heuristic?
Rothman + Hardin (1997)
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What was Rothman and Hardin's (1997) study on the availability heuristic?
Participants were asked to judge if a person was polite or impolite based on if they were in their in or out group.
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What were Rothman and Hardin's (1997) results on the availability heuristic?
That when making judgements on people in your out-group people relied on how easy it was to recall instances instead of the number of instances. When doing in-group people looked to be accurate and factual and relied on an object number of behaviours
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Are first impressions often accurate?
Yes
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How long does it take to determine if someone is intelligent or not?
5 seconds
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How long does it take if someone is angry/happy?
200 milliseconds
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What can we tell within 5 seconds of meeting someone?
If they are intelligent, their extroversion and their conscientiousness.
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After how many seconds does it take to tell if someone has a personality disorder (even if you aren't properly trained)?
30 seconds
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After how many seconds does it take to understand someones more nuanced personality (Neuroticism, agreeableness, openness)?
60 seconds.
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Who are better at forming accurate impressions, women or men?
Women
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When do we get more accurate results when judging someone's personality?
When people make 'snap impressions' instead of thinking if over.
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How does being sad/depressed/angry/drunk/on drugs affect your ability to judge someones personality?
You are bad at making snap impressions as you do not want to, so over think things which means you are more likely to be wrong in your impressions of someone.
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What is attribution theory?
It talks about casual explanations for others' behaviour. Often when faced with unpleasant or unexpected events. Helps us to predict and control the environment. Otherwise it is random, surprising and incoherent. Looks at how people explain events.
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What is a positivity bias?
We assume that positive or neutral things are more likely to happen than negative things.
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How are people naive scientists?
People explain observable behaviours without unobservable or motivated causes, look for stable and enduring properties, look for the cause of action.
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Attribution theory. Where do most people look for the cause of the behaviour/action?
Internal - there is something about that person OR external - there is something about that situation.
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Who did correspondent inference theory/correspondent bias?
Jones + Davis (1965)
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What is correspondent inference theory/bias?
When an observer infers that a person behaviour matches or corresponds with their personality.
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According to correspondent inference theory/bias when do we make an internal judgement?
When someone has choice and it seems they have freely chosen to do something. If someone acts unexpectedly we put to an internal reason. If someone is being intentional (good/bad) we say that's down to them.
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What is covariation theory (Kelley 1967)?
When we have the ability to make more information, people attribute the cause of a behaviour to a factor which covaries most clearly with the behaviour.
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Whats another way of explaining covariation theory?
We attribute events to conditions that tend to be present when the event happens and that are absent when it does not.
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What are the three dimensions of information about covariance?
Distinctiveness, consistency, consensus.
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What is distinctiveness one of the three dimensions of information according to covariation theory?
Does the action occur only with that entity, not with other entities?
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What is consistency one of the three dimensions of information according to covariation theory?
Does the action occur each time the entity is present and in every context?
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What is consensus one of the three dimensions of information according to covariation theory?
Does the action also occur in other individuals?
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According to McArthur (1972) what happens when people have incomplete information?
People over-attribute events to the person (internal) when they have incomplete information
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How do perceivers make attributions?
They do it quickly, using a small amount of information showing biases and systematic preferences
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What is the correspondence bias/the fundamental attribution error/ over-attribution bias?
That we tend to over-estimate the likelihood that someones attributions or behaviours (especially when they are negative or unexpected) are likely the cause of who they are.
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What was Jones + Harris (1967) study into the correspondence bias?
Participants read an article about cuban leader (pos/neg) written by a student, were told that the students were told to write the essay/not. Asked what the person actually thinks?
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What were the results of Jones + Harris (1967) study into the correspondence bias?
That even when they said people were told to write the essay they still thought that was their own opinions.
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What was Ross et al (1977) study into the correspondence bias?
Quiz paradigm. People were either questioners or contestants. Questioners were told in-front of everyone to ask questions they knew the answers to.
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What were the results of Ross et al (1977) study into the correspondence bias?
People rated that the questioner were significantly smarter than the contestants, despite the fact they came up with the questions. The questioners did not rate them self higher than anyone else.
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What does the results of Ross et al (1977) study into the correspondence bias mean?
Everyone made an internal attributions to the questioner behaviour, however the questioner made an external attribution.
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What was Forgas (1998) study into the correspondence bias?
Participants read short essay students wrote about french nuclear testing. The essay was pro/con and the students were forced/not forced
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Were the results of Forgas (1998) study into the correspondence bias?
People still thought that when people were forced to write pro essays that they were pro.
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Are humans aware of external issues?
NO. People often put behaviour down to internal than external things, more so when it is negative or unexpected.
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When does correspondence bias reduce?
With time, pay attention (concentration), more information and motivation to be accurate
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Is correspondence bias is stronger in the west/east?
Stronger in the west
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What is actor-observer bias?
Tendency for actors to attribute their own behaviours to the situation and for observers to explain behaviours in terms of personality traits. People put their own behaviour down to external not internal attributions.
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Why is there actor-observer bias?
Self-raters have more information about their own behaviour. There is a different focus of attention. There is an optimistic bias for ones own actions success
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What are the two types of explanations for attributional biases?
Motivational and cognitive?
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What is the motivational explanation for attributional biases?
We are bias to preserve or increase self-esteem
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What is the cognitive explanation for attributional biases?
We are cognitive misers (we are efficient with how much thought we put into things). Different perspectives and by an overall limitation of human beings.
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What is the cognitive/motivational explanation for attributional biases?
Cognitive explanations often contain motivational elements and motivational reasons can affect information processing.
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What is an application of attribution theory in regards to mental health?
Mental health (people with depression tend to have a pessimistic attributional style, so attribute negative events in their lives internally. Psychotherapeutic techniques focus on training people to stop this way of thinking.
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What is an application of attribution theory in regards to aggression?
People who are more aggressive are prone to the 'hostile attribution bias'.
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What research showed about children's ability to interpret behaviours?
If children aged 5 are predisposed to interpret behaviours hostilely they are more likely to be aggressive 12 years later.
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What is an application of attribution theory in regards to close relationships?
People who attribute partner's behaviours to internal factors are less forgiving and less satisfied with their marriage
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What is an application of attribution theory in regards to educational achievement?
Training people to explain their educational performance in terms of changeable factors leads to favourable results.
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Who did a study on the availability heuristic?

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Rothman + Hardin (1997)

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What was Rothman and Hardin's (1997) study on the availability heuristic?

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What were Rothman and Hardin's (1997) results on the availability heuristic?

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Are first impressions often accurate?

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