INTERNAL- Social Class and Educational Achievement

Who is a teacher more likely to give a negative label to, in terms of social class
Working Class, a negative label could be put on them in primary or secondary school
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What sociologist carried out an international study on labelling
BECKER
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What research method did Becker use
Interviewing
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Who did Becker interview
60 high school teachers
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What did Becker find (that teachers do)
that teachers judge pupils according to how closely they match with their image of an 'ideal pupil'
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Who did Becker say was a teachers 'ideal pupil' and who does it disadvantage as a consequence
Teachers ideal student are middle class, this disadvantages working class students
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What class were labelled as having more potential in Beckers study
Middle Class pupils
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Define 'Self Fulfilling Prophecy''
A prediction made by a teacher comes true simply because it has been made in the first place. The student lives up to the prediction given - could be positive or negative.
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Who conducted a study on Self Fulfilling Prophecy
ROSENTHAL and JACOBSON
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What school did they conduct the study at
OAK school
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What did they tell the teachers at OAK school?
that they had a new test to identify which students would 'bloom' and excel academically
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Was the test really new?
NO! it was a standard IQ test
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Once they tested the students what did they do?
selected students at random who had 'obtained scored in the top 20%' and told the teachers that they were the potential high achievers
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How long until they went back to ... school?
OAK school, 1 year
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What was the purpose of telling the teacher which students were 'potential high achievers'
in order to see if the teachers perception of the student, impacted on how much they would excel within a year
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How does ROSENTHAL and JACOBSON's study link to Self Fulfilling Prophecy
It shows that when a teacher believes in their students, the students will believe in themselves and greatly impact their future success and how they view themselves academically.
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What did ROSENTHAL and JACOBSON find when they returned the next year
around half of the 'potential achievers' showed a significant amount of progress when the tests were repeated
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What is 'Streaming'
where pupils of similar ability are put in streams across all of their subjects - here are four main streams, stream A,B,C,D and they are in a order of hierarchy - if a pupil has a high IQ, they would be put in stream A for all of their subjects
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Who are typically put in the lower streams and why
working class students, due to labelling, the working class pupils are most likely to be put in lower streams because teachers see them as less able and poorly behaved.
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Why is it harder to achieve in a lower stream
because the pupils are taught in a restricted code rather than elaborated, which is what the higher stream are spoken to in, and the type of language exam questions use.
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Why do pupil subcultures emerge
as a response to labelling
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Define 'Marketisation'
the changing of the school system to make it more competitive (e.g. publishing league tables), ensuring that it churns out ideal workers who crave competition
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Why does Marketisation prioritise the middle class
because schools tend to choose middle class pupils as they feel that they produce stronger exams results
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what sociologist does Marketisation link to
like GILLBORN previously highlighted, schools can select which students they want in their school, which disadvantages not only ethnic minorities but also the working class.
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Why are schools under pressure (due to Marketisation)
schools have to publish league tables (results) each year, so the schools are under pressure to compete with other schools
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Definitions linked to Marketisation
1. Cream Skimming 2. Slit Shifting
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What does 'Cream Skimming' mean
selecting pupils with higher abilities
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What does 'Slit Shifting' mean
off loading disabled pupils (who produce poor exam results) to poorer schools who aren't able to select their students
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What sociologist carried out an international study on labelling

Back

BECKER

Card 3

Front

What research method did Becker use

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Who did Becker interview

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What did Becker find (that teachers do)

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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