infection and responce

what is a pathogen
any microorganism that passes a communicable disease (a disease that can be transmitted from one orgaism to another)
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what are the 4 main types of microorganisms that can cause diseases + eg.
viruses (measles), bacteria (salmonella), fungi (athletes foot) and protists (malaria)
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what is the life cycle for pathogens
infect a host, reproduce (or replicate in the case of viruses) spread from ther host and infect other organisms
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can pathogens live without a host
only for a short period of time, although they cant reproduce without a host
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what does infectious mean
some are transmitted from one orgaism to another. others can reproduce very quickly and others can survive long periods of time without a host.
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how do pathogens spead
they are: airbourne, through dirty water, by direct physical contact, through contaminated foods, and passed on by another animal
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what is a vector
an animal that spreads a communicable disease
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what are viruses made of
astrand of genetic material (DNA or RNA) and surrounded by a protein coat
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how do viruses attack a host
they infect a single cell in a host, and use it to copy their genetic material and protein coats these are then assembled into new virus particles. at this points cells are almost bursting full of virus particles so they burst open, the cycle repeats
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what pathogen is measles transmitted by, what are its affects, and how is it transmitted
measles is an airbourne disease caused by viruses. symptoms include a fever + red skin rash. babies immunised at 1 year old but it can infect unimmunised babies and adults leading to adult sterility complications + foetal abnormalities for pregnants
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what pathogen is HIV/AIDS transmitted by, what are its affects, and how is it transmitted
virus, transmitted by share of bodily fluids (sex/blood needles), symptoms: flu - like in beggining, months/years after infecion, virus attacks bodies immune cells which makes them less able to fight off diseases like cancer + tuberculosis
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what pathogen is salmonella transmitted by, what are its affects, and how is it transmitted
bacteria, food that has been prepared in unhygenic conditions, causes cramps, puking, diarrhoea and fever. poulty are vaccinated to minimise spread
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what pathogen is gonorrhoea transmitted by, what are its affects, and how is it transmitted
bacteria, STD, painful burning when urinating and thich yellow or green discharge form the vagina or penis. treated with antibacterials or pennicillin but som have become resistant. prevent with condom
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what pathogen is atheletes foot transmitted by, what are its affects, and how is it transmitted
fungal, grows in swiming pools or places where people walk barefoot, and shows and socks can keep feet warm and moist which are ideal conditions. causes itching flaking and blistering. treated buy keeping feet dry + anifungal cream
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what pathogen is malaria transmitted by, what are its affects, and how is it transmitted
protists, mosquitos spread it through saliva into your blood(vector) symptoms: fever, tiredness, vomiting + headaches prevention is to avoid being bitten.
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in short what is the 1st 2nd and 3rd line of defence
1: preventing disease 2. detecting disease and acting generally 3. acting specifically
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how does skin prevent disease
it covers any part that is prone too attack from pathogens, insulates you, helps regulate teperature and is involved with the way sences provide you information
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where your skin doesnt prevent infection, what does
lysozymes which are antibacterial enzymes which are found in your tears and salive to prevent moth and eye infections
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how do you prevent pathogents from being respired in
nose hairs which produce mucus and act as a barrier. the pathogens in your mucus then get blown out or you swallow them where the stomach acid destroys them. in your trachea and bronchi towards your lungs, there are cillia that waft mucus out of the
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continue
gas exchange system
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what happens in the seccond line of defence
phagoctes which are a type of white blood cell take in or engulf pathogens as well as your own dead or dying cells. they exist in very high umbers in your blood. they are atracted to any are in which infcection is present
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show in a diagram how phagocytes work
.
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what happens in the third line of defence
lymphocytes are released which afre a seccond type of white blood cell. lymphocytes recognise invading antigens and produce large numbers of antibodies which are specific to the antigen. antibodies help clump pathogens together so they are more
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continue
easily engulfed by phagocytes. if you are infected a seccond time with the same pathogen you lymphocytes will recognise its antigens and be able to producelarger numbers of the right antibody mire quickly
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pathogens also produce toxins to make you feel ill. how does the 3rd line of defence fix this
lymphocytes produce a special type of toxin called an antitoxin which is a protein that neutralises these toxins
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what is a vaccine
a medicine containing an antigen from a pathogen (dead inactive or geneticlly modified) that trigers a low level immune responce so subsequent infection is dealt with more effectively by the body's own immune system.
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what are antibiotics
a group of medicines which kill bacteria and fungi. they have no effect on viruses and so are never prescribed for common cold or other viral diseases
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what is the problem with taking antibiotics when not needed or not finishing your treatment
you could kill almost all bacteria but leave 2 resistant bacteria which would then multiply again and again and so when you are sick again and retake antibiotics, it wont work, as all will be resistant. there will also be more of these on earth
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what are the stages in drug development
computer modelling, lab testing, clinical trials on humans
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what happens dring computer modelling (1)
they theoretically test the structure of the drug, and interactios it might have with naturally occuring substances in the body
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what happens during lab testing (2)
it is tested on live cells, tissues, and animals to see how the drug may affect humans
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what happens during clinical trials on humans (3)
1. the drug is testing on small amount of healthy voulenteers to determine of it is toxic and safe dosing. 2. it is tested on small number of patients to determine efficiancy and then on large number of patients for efficiancy and safe dosing.
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Card 2

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what are the 4 main types of microorganisms that can cause diseases + eg.

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viruses (measles), bacteria (salmonella), fungi (athletes foot) and protists (malaria)

Card 3

Front

what is the life cycle for pathogens

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

can pathogens live without a host

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what does infectious mean

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