B1

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  • B1
    • Health
      • Vaccines
        • Prepare white blood cells to make antibodies
        • Provide immunity
      • If infected...
        • Antibiotics may kill bacteria
          • Bacteria may become resistant
        • White blood cells
          • Make antitoxins
          • Make antibodies
          • Engulf pathogens
      • Painkillers relieve symptoms
    • Healthy Living
      • Eating too much fat can lead to high cholesterol which can lead to heart disease
      • Metabolic Rate = the speed at which chemical reactions occur in your cells
      • Diet
        • Body needs nutrients to stay healthy
          • If you don't get these nutrients you will become malnourished
    • Nervous System
      • Responses
        • Reflex
          • Electrical impulses are passed from the receptor through the sensory neuron. They go through a synapse and to the relay neuron. They go through another synapse and are moved through by neurotransmitters and passed through to the motor neuron. It is then sent to the effector.
      • Receptors
        • Receptor organs include: eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin
        • Stimulus (changes in the surroundings)
          • Nervous system (detects stimuli and coordinates responce)
            • Response (changes organisms behavior as a result of the stimuli)
    • Control
      • Reflexes
        • Happen fast and automatically without you thinking or realising
          • Protection
      • Brain
        • Processes signals from sense organs
          • Makes decisions
      • Keeps things steady
        • Temperature
          • Ion content
            • Blood glucose
      • Hormones
        • Co-ordinates long term changes
          • The menstrual cycle
      • Drugs
        • Medicinal Drugs
          • Tested in double blind trials
        • Recreational drugs
          • Affects brain
          • Harmful / addictive
    • Drug Trial
      • Before new drugs are introduced, they are first tested in a lab on clusters of cells,tissues and animals. You then get a healthy volunteer and give them a small dose of the drug to check it isn't harmful. You then test the efficiency to find the best dose to give.
    • Energy and Resources
      • Indicator Species
        • Highlight pollution
          • Dissolved oxygen
            • Invertebrate distribution
        • Sulfer dioxide
          • Lichen distribution
      • Carbon cycle
        • Photosynthesis traps carbon in biomass
          • Food chains transfer it to animals
            • Respiration and decay transfer it to the air
      • Energy
        • Flows along the food chain
          • Each organism loses energy as heat and waste
      • Elements
        • Recycled
          • Detritivores
            • e.g: worms
          • Decomposers
            • Bacteria and Fungi
      • Changing environments
        • Make survival harder
          • Organisms must adapt or move away
    • Variation
      • Environment
      • Similarities and differences used for classification
      • Genetics
        • Variation increased by sexual reproduction
      • Asexual reproduction
        • Adult cloning cell
        • Embryo Splitting
        • Tissue culture
      • Genetic engineering
        • Transfers new genes to organisms
          • makes embryos develop the characteristics the genes code for
          • Makes GM crops
            • Higher yields, more nutrients
            • Provokes concerns about health and the environment
      • Darwin's theory of evolution
        • Not accepted at first
          • Little evidence, no mechanism, conflicted with biblical accounts
    • Plant and Animal Adaptations
      • Extremophiles
        • Organisms that have adaptations so they can tolerate very extreme environments many extremophiles are microorganisms
      • Animals in a dry environment
        • Fat stored for food and water
        • Large ears transfer body heat to air quicker
        • Thick coats on top of body to insulate
        • Store large quantities of water - go longer without drinking but will stay hydrated
      • Animals in the arctic
        • Lighter colours (for camouflage in the snow)
        • Smaller ears (reduced surface area therefore reduced heat loss)
        • Larger feet (for better grip on slippery surfaces)
        • More fat below skin (for insulation)
    • Osmosis
      • The movement of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane from a higher water concentration to a lower water concentration
    • Microscopy
      • Magnification = image size/real size
      • Electron microscope
        • Uses electrons
        • Higher magnification
      • Light microscope
        • Uses light and lenses
        • Lets us see individual cells and large subcellular structures
          • Nuclei
    • Chromosomes
      • X X - females X Y - Males
      • 23 Pairs in each human cell
      • Found in the nucleus
      • Contains genetic information
    • Differentiation and specialisation
      • Nerve cells for rapid signalling
      • Phloem and xylem for transporting substances
      • Sperm cells for reproduction
      • Root hair cells for absorbing water and minerals
      • Differentiation is the process by which a cell changes to become specialised
      • Specialised cells are cells that do a specific function
    • Diffusion
      • The spreading out of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
      • Bigger concentration gradient = and require energy
    • Active transport
      • Molecules are moving against the concentration gradient and require energy
      • Molecules move across a cell membrane from a lower to a higher concentration
    • Cells
      • Prokaryotic
        • Smaller and simpler
          • E.g bacteria
      • Eukaryotic
        • Complex
          • Includes animal and plant cells
      • Animal
        • Nucleus
        • Mitochondria
        • Cell Membrane
        • Ribosomes
        • Cytoplasm
      • Plant
        • Rigid Cell Wall
        • Permanent Vacuole
        • Chloroplasts

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