Immigration

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  • Created by: melia
  • Created on: 25-01-17 18:27
How many Irish people came to Britain between 1940 and 1960?
350,000 came to Britain, and settled with the existing Irish population.
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How many Eastern Europeans were recruited by the government to work in Britain between 1945 and 1950?
200,000. Many were prisoners of war who didn't want to return to their country.
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How many West Indians were in Britain by 1960?
Students and members of the armed forces came to Britain in the 1950s. 125,000 West Indians by 1960.
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What happened in Britain in 1948?
A boat called the ** Windrush arrived in Britain from the Caribbean. This is significant because there were film cameras and crowds with placards saying, 'Go home'.
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What 'pushed' many Caribbean people into to Britain?
High unemployment and poor living conditions, as tourism hadn't kicked in yet.
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What 'pulled' many Caribbean people into Britain? 1
The 1948 Nationality Act gave all people in the British Empire the right to settle in Britain. Seen as a land of opportunity, with '6 jobs to every man'. Hotels, restaurants, the NHS and London Transport recruited West Indian workers.
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What 'pulled' many Caribbean people into Britain? 2
Immigrants sent money home to places like Jamaica and this encouraged others to follow in their footsteps. By the late 1950s money from workers in Britain was Jamaica's second biggest source of foreign money after food exports.
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What 'pulled' many Caribbean people into Britain? 3
Most were looking for work but many saw it as an adventure and wanted to help out the mother land in its hour of need.
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Why did many people from the Indian Sub-Continent come to Britain in the 1960s?
To leave behind poverty at home for work in Britain. Most intended to make money and then return home but many sttled, encouraging further immigration as new immigrants had contracts in the UK.
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What was the first group of immigrants from the Indian Sub-Continent in Britain?
Middle class, mixed race (British-Indian), Christian men and women.
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What was the second group of immigrants from the Indian Sub-Continent in Britain?
Sikhs. A minority group in India behind Hindus and Muslims. Many Sikhs had served in the British Army over the previous 200 years. After Indian independence in 1947, violence in the Punjab where many Sikhs lived convinced many to seek a peaceful life
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What was the third group of immigrants from the Indian Sub-Continent in Britain?
Other Indian workers filling the labour shortage in the UK. Many had worked in Indian factories helping the British war effort during WW2. Had experience to work in metal industries around Birmingham and clothing industries in places like Bradford.
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What was the background of many East African Asian immigrants?
In the 1800s Asians were taken to Africa as workers during the time of the British Empire. Many were from poor parts of India. In the 1900s an Asian middle-class had travelled to East Africa to set up business, and to work as doctors and lawyers, etc
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What 'pushed' many East African Asian immigrants to Britain?
African countries got independence from Britain, and didn't want foreigners. In Kenya, 1967, President Jomo Kenyatta gave Kenyan Asians 2 years to become Kenyan citizens or leave. In Uganda,1972, President Idi Amin expelled 50,000 Ugandan Asians.
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How many people left Kenya between 1967 and 1969?
Around 20,000.
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What did the 'colour bar' in Britain mean?
This meant that immigrants couldn't get things like bank loans, council housing or good jobs because of the colour of their skin.
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How did Londoner, Peter Rachman, exploit immigrants?
By charging high rents for poor accommodation. If immigrants complained he sent men around to beat them up. He had over 100 properties.
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What did white workers demand in one factory in the West Midlands?
White workers demanded separate toilet facilities from the Sikh workers.
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What happened in 1958?
There was violence against immigrants in Nottingham and London. The worst voilence saw 400 'Teddy boys' and white youths attack Notting Hill over 3 nights using petrol bombs. The black immigrants felt the police did little to protect them.
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Give a quote from a West Indian immigrant who worked in Britain.
'I thought the people of Britain would be good and affectionate - now most of them are against us.'
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What right-wing campaigns were held in the later 1950s?
Campaigns to 'Keep Britain WHite'. Fascist leader Oswald Mosely and labour MP George Rogers developed the stereotype that immigrants had a taste for crime, drugs and knives.
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Why did workers in Wolverhampton, West Bromwich and Bristol go on strike in 1955?
Because of the increase in 'coloured' workers. In the case of West Bromwich this meant one Indian bus conductor.
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What did many New Commonwealth immigrants experience when they came to Britain?
They were not welcome in bars, restaurants and dance halls. The owners feared that there would be trouble.
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What did many immigrants do to stay safe in the areas of cities with the worst housing?
Many stuck together and formed communities. There were Caribbean communities such as Notting Hill in London and Moss side in Manchester. Areas of Birmingham became Asian communities.
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Why were many West Indian women happy when they moved to Britain?
Many got jobs outside of the home for the first time. One woman remembered her mother's happiness working in a sewing workshop with other immigrants from Germany and Ireland.
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Why were many of the early Jamaican immigrants happy when they moved to Britain?
Many remember being welcomed. A Jamaican nurse remembers that the bus conductor waived the fare for her and other nurses.
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What was the result of new immigrants looking for lodgings with friends and family, or other contacts who were already in Britain?
Areas like Toxeth in Liverpool, Notting Hill in London, Saint Pauls in Bristol, Handsworth in Birmingham and Moss Side in Manchester became Caribbean communities with a life and culture of their own. It was a similar sotry with the other immigrants.
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What happened during the Summer of Violence, 1958?
Throughout the summer, white youths had carried out violent attacks on black and Asian people. In August large-scale fighting broke out between black and white youths in St Ann's Well Road area.
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What heppened in September 1958?
Gangs of Teddy Boys and other white youths attacked Caribbean people and their homes in Notting Hill, even using petrol bombs. On the third night the black polulation fought back, angry that they hadn't received any help from the police.
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What was government action like in 1959?
The summer of violence in 1958 made immigration an important issue for politicians. The 1959 election saw the elction of a number of MPs determined to raise the issue of immigration, such as Conservative MP Cyril Osborne. He used racist slogans.
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What was government action like in 1962? 1
The Conservative government responded to public opinion and passed the Commonwealth Immigrants Act, which introduced a voucher system which restricted immigration to people who had a valueable skill or could do a job where there was a shortage.
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What was government action like in 1962? 2
The Commonwealth Immigrants Act was aimed at restricting the arrival of immigrants from the New Commonwealth (Caribbean, Africa, India) because a greater proportion of them tended to be unskilled.
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What was government action like in 1964?
The Labour Party criticised the new Commonwealth Immigrants Act, but when it came to power in 1964 PM Harold Wilson limited the number of immigrants to 8,500 a year.
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What was government action like between 1965 and 1966? 1
Wilson passed the Race Relations Act of 1965. This made racist discrimination illegal. The government then set up the Race Relations Board in 1966 to handle complaints about racism.
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What was government action like between 1965 and 1966? 2
...Both were steps in the right direction, but the 1965 Act failed to prevent discrimination in areas such as housing or employment and in its first year the Race Relations Board dismissed 734 out of 982 complaints received.
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What was government action like between 1965 and 1966? 3
The Board also lacked legal powers to enforce its decisions and it lacked credibility because it was all white. Neither measure could or did change attitudes.
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What was government action like in 1967?
This year saw the foundation of the National Front, which was an openly racist political party. They were partly a response to Kenyan Asians in Britain. It called for an end to immigration and for immigrants to be sent back to their country of origin
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What was the National Front against?
Any kind of mixing between the white and non-white communities.
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What was government action like in 1968? 1
Following the arrival of Kenyan Asians, Parliament passed the Commonwealth Immigrants Act, which restricted work vouchers further-to 1500 a year. It also brought in a 'close connection' clause.
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What did the Commonwealth Immigrants Act do?
It restricted work vouchers further-to 1500 per year. It also brought in a 'close connection' clause. Immigrants had to be Commonwealth citizens who held a British passport and were born in Britain, or whose parents or grandparents were born there.
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What was government action like in 1968? 2
On the 20th April 1968 the Conservative MP Enoch Powell made a speech claiming that British people were feeling overwhelmed and threatened by immigration and warned that there would be 'rivers of blood' if action wasn't taken. Sacked by Edward Heath.
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What was government action like in 1968? 3
The Labour government passed a new Race Relations Act, which made discrimination in areas such as housing and unemployment illegal. It also made it illegal to publish racist notices. It was hard to enforce, however.
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Why was the new 1968 Race Relations Act hard to enforce?
An employer could discriminate by saying that another candidate had more relevant experience, for example.
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What was government action like in 1971?
The Conservatives, led by Edward Heath, passed another Immigration Act. This was in response to the arrival of Ugandan Asians and was designed to further restrict non-white immigration.
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What was government action like in 1976?
The Labour givernment passed the Race Relations Act, which made racially offensive music or publications illegal. It also set up tribunals so that any job applicant who felt that they were suffering from discrimination could report the employer.
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What did the Commission for Racial Equality (set up by the Race Relations Act) do?
It investigated racism. Although a positive move, it showed that earlier measures had still not removed racism from British society.
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In the 1960s, which party was most likely to pass laws which limited immigration?
The Conservative Party.
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What was the name of Enoch Powell's most famous speech?
'Rivers of blood'.
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What did the 'Rivers of Blood' speech trigger?
An explosion of tension and controversy, as well as fear and prejudice. People were taught to fear the loss of their jobs to immigrants. Powell was very confident with his views and felt like he needed to give a warning, as many people didn't speak u
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Why may some people say that Enoch Powell was very significant?
He dared to raise the issue of immigration, and represented the views of some groups in society who saw immigration as a problem (dockers/people working in industry).
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Why may some people say that Enoch Powell was insignificant?
He caused more fear and resentment towards immigrants making their lives sorse. Also, he turned the issue of immigration into an issue of race-a very different thing.
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What were Sybil Phoenix's greatest achievements?
She opened a youth group called the Moonshot in Lewisham, and helped to found the early race relations groups in the area. In 1971 she was awarded with an MBE and in 1973 became the mayor of Lewisham.
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How have immigrants supported the NHS?
By the mid 1970s the NHS was reliant on a huge staff of porters, cleaners, nurses, doctors, surgeons and consultants. Many were immigrants. Today, over 1/3 of all doctors in the NHS were born overseas, mostly in India.
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What contradicts Enoch Powell's 'rivers of blood' speech?
He was a health minister who recruited immigrant doctors. In the 1960s, he led the arrival of 18000 Indian doctors.
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Who were the first big emplyers of immigrants?
London Transport and the London Underground. However, soon many towns and cities also relied on immigrants to run essential servics like transport+sanitation.
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Describe the link between immigrants and the military/police.
Recruits from immigrant backgrounds played an important role in the armed forces, especially the army. Also, many established themselves in the police, and Sikhs won the right to wear their traditional head dress after initial reluctance.
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List some of the industries immigrants contribute the most to.
Textiles, clothing and foot wear, professional, scientific, metal goods, and financial and miscellaneous services.
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Give an example of an Asian Entrepreneur.
Anwar Pervez came from a farming family in Pakistan in 1956. He drove buses in Bradford and saved enough to open a convenience store in London in 1962. He then bought more shops until his Bestwar minimarket spread across the country.
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What was Asian work ethic?
Many were prepared to work hard, and understood the importance of education. By 1981 the government's Labour Force Survey showed that 1/3 of Indian men in Britain were highly qualified-much more than the British men.
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Give examples of Asian influence in Corner Shops.
By the 1960s local stores were closing down because of competition from department stores. Asian entrepeneurs revived this business. The provided locals with a service of much use. In London around 1/2 of the sub-post offices are owned by Asians.
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How did food in Britain change when immigrants came?
Italian immigrants brought coffee bars, ice cream parlours and pizzerias. Also, the British couldn't get enough of curry. There were almost 2000 Indian restaurants by 1967 (similar with Chinese). The immigrants adapted their cuisine to British tastes
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How did music in Britain change when immigrants came?
The Beatles were influenced by Indian music+instruments. In Britain, the biggest influence was from the Afro-Caribbean community.
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What did the Notting Hill Carnival introduce?
Reggae music, steel drums and calypso. In 1958 it was enjoyed by around 7000 people.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How many Eastern Europeans were recruited by the government to work in Britain between 1945 and 1950?

Back

200,000. Many were prisoners of war who didn't want to return to their country.

Card 3

Front

How many West Indians were in Britain by 1960?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happened in Britain in 1948?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What 'pushed' many Caribbean people into to Britain?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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