IGCSE Geography - Coasts Flashcards

Briefly describe the formation of a wave
Wind blows over the surface of the ocean, creating friction. The particles move in a circular orbit, individually moving vertically up and down.
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Define Orbital Motion
The motion of an object in orbit around a fixed point.
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Define Shoaling
The effect by which surface waves entering shallow water change in wave height. It is an effect of the group velocity changing with water depth.
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Describe the effect of fetch on wave processes
The distance over which a ave travels is called the fetch. The size and energy of waves varies according to its fetch.
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Define Backwash
The movement of water and load down a beach
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Define Swash
The movement of water and load up a beach
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Define the elements of constructive waves
They have less energy, they are smaller in height, they have a strong swash and a weak backwash.
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Define the elements of destructive waves
They have more energy, they are bigger in height and strength, they have a weak swash and a very strong backwash.
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Briefly explain the process of erosion that operates at the coast
All four processes of erosion occur at the coast. Destructive waves wear away at the coastline and destroys land forms.
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Briefly explain the process of transportation that operates at the coast
The movement of material in the sea and along the coast by waves is caused by Long Shore Drift
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Briefly explain the process of deposition that operates at the coast
The dumping of eroded material on land by constructive waves. It happens when the waves have less energy and it creates land forms.
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Explain the formation of Headlands and Bays
Destructive waves erode the areas of softer rock more rapidly, which forms bays. The waves, however, cannot erode away the resistant rock as quickly, thus leaving headlands protruding out into the sea.
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Explain the formation of Wave-cut Notches and Wave-cut Platforms
Waves with maximum energy undercut the foot of a cliff to form a wave-cut notch. Over time this notch increases and the land on top gives in and collapses. Wave-cut platforms are the sloping rocky platforms left behind.
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Explain the formation of Caves
Caves form when abrasion and hydraulic action weakens a fault in the rock.
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Explain the formation of Arches
Arches are formed over time, when the waves cut right through the cave
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Explain the formation of Stacks and Stumps
As more of the arch gets eroded, it weakens. A stack is formed when the weight of the arch is too heavy and collapses, leaving an isolated portion of cliff. Eventually, the stack collapses and leaves a stump.
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Explain how Long Shore Drift (LSD) operates
Prevailing winds cause waves to break at an angle. Swash carries the materials up the beach at an angle, Backwash drags materials back down the beach at a right angle. Material is moved along the coast in the direction of the prevailing wind.
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Explain the role of groynes in aiding deposition from LSD processes
Groynes are a hard engineering solution to Long Shore Drift, A groyne is a wooden barrier constructed at right angles, protruding out to sea, It prevents sand from eroding too much of the coast and makes it easier for deposition to occur.
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Explain the formation of a spit
Spits are a permanent land form resulting from marine deposition. It is a long narrow accumulation of sand with one end attached to the land and the other projecting at an angle.
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Explain the formation of sand dunes
Sand dunes are small ridges or hills of sand found at the top of a beach, above the usual maximum reach of the waves. They form from wind blown sand that is initially deposited against an obstruction such as a bush, driftwood or rock.
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List the two different types of coral, with named examples.
Soft Coral (Sea Whips and Sea Fingers), Hard Coral (Brain Coral and Elk-horn Coral)
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How are coral reefs made?
When tiny animals that live in colonies die, they leave behind a hard, stony, branching structure made of hard limestone.
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List some Reef Characteristics
Home to 25% of marine life, only foumd less than 100m deep as they need sunlight, only thrives in 20-25 degrees
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Define Hard Engineering
Using unnatural materials as a defense system
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Define Soft Engineering
Using natural materials as a defense system
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Give examples of Hard Engineering and their advantages/disadvantages
Groynes - Wooden Barriers that are cheap and wide, but can be eyesores, and it causes beaches to be depleted of sand. Seawalls - Excellent defense system but very expensive
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Give examples of Soft Engineering and their advantages/disadvantages
Beach Nourishment - Cheap way of preserving natural appearance by important sand, but offshore dredging increases erosion. Managed Reyreat - An area is allowed to erode. This retains the natural balance but people tend to lose their livelihood.
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Explain why coastal processes need to be managed
By 2025, it is estimated that 75% of the population will live within 200km of the coast. If we do not manage coastal processes, buildings will be destroyed, beaches that attract tourists will erode away, and islands like Tuvalu, will be submerged.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Define Orbital Motion

Back

The motion of an object in orbit around a fixed point.

Card 3

Front

Define Shoaling

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe the effect of fetch on wave processes

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Define Backwash

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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