ICT Definitions

All the definitions that you need to know!

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  • Created by: JSpencer
  • Created on: 15-03-16 11:00
Actuators
Devices that perform an action in response to a signal from a computer.
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Applications software
Computer programs that are designed to carry out specific tasks
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Attachment
A file you can send along with your e-mail.
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Avatar
A picture that you choose to represent yourself online. It is safer than using a real picture of yourself.
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Backups
Copies of data stored in case the original is stolen or becomes corrupt.
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Bandwidths
The rate at which data can be transferred.
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BCC
Blind Carbon Copy. Sending an e-mail message to many people in such a way that it hides the fact that it is being addressed to other people as well.
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Biometric
Using human characteristics such as fingerprints or iris recognition as identification methods.
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Bit
The smallest amount of information that a computer can store
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Blog
The smallest amount of information that a computer can store
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Broadband
Connection to the internet through a modem/router, it offers greater bandwith/high rate of data connection.
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Browser
A software application that provides a way to view and interact with pages on the World Wide Web.
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Bulletin boards
Online discussion spaces where people can post messages and get responses from other people.
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Buffers
Temporary storage areas in the printer that hold the data waiting to be printed.
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Byte
A series of 8 bits. One character on a keyboard is a single ......
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CAD
Computer-aided design.
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CAM
Computer-assisted manufacture
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CC
Carbon copy. Used to send a copy of an email to someone who is not directly affected by the message but who you want to be aware of it.
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Cell reference
A unique address for each cell in a spreadsheet which consists of a letter which represents the column the cell is in and a number which represents the row.
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Collaborative working
Two or more people working together on a common goal.
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Computer Misuse Act
A law designed to prevent unauthorised access to data, it mainly relates to hacking and distributing viruses although other computer related crimes can be tried under this Act.
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Control Feedback Loop
Input a new value. Respond to it by processing it (eg. turn on heating). Check reading, if not as required then change the input value (feedback).
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Copyright and Patents Act
A law created to protect intellectual property. It applies to books and music as well as computer software and images. Material that is protected by copyright means that it cannot be used or reproduced without permission.
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Cookie
A small text file that is stored on your computer when you visit some websites. They can help the site identify you so you don’t have to re-enter personal information every time you visit.
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Corrupt
The data in a file is unreadable.
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CPU
The part of the computer that does most of the data processing.
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Data
Raw figures or words with no context or meaning.
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Database
Storing data in a logical or structured way.
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Data controller
The person in an organisation who is responsible for ensuring the Data Protection Act 1998 rules are followed.
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Data Protection Act
A law designed to protect the privacy of personal information.
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Data redundancy
When the same data is stored more than once in a table. Sometimes called data duplication. This can be overcome through the use do relational databases.
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Data subjects
People about whom data is stored.
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Data users
People or organisations that store personal data.
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Dialogue box
A small, secondary window used to display information for the user.
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Dongle
A small piece of hardware that connects to a computer’s USB port. It allows a computer user to use certain pieces of software. Most wireless broadband services use them as part of their modem devices.
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DTP
Desktop publishing. A type of applications software used to create printed materials containing text and images.
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E-mail
A letter or message or information, sent from computer to computer over the internet.
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Encryption
Scrambling data to make it secure. Only users with the key to the code can unscramble it and read the data.
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Encoding
Replacing data with a code which shortens it.
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Exemptions
Situations where the data protection rules do not apply (eg. Where national security may be put at risk or where information is needed to prevent and detect crime).
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Feasibility study
An investigation to decide whether it is worth proceeding with a project or not.Uses interviews, questionnaires or observations to gather information about how the present system works.
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Feedback
The way the output influences the input.
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Fields
Column headings in database tables, they are part of a record.
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File Path
An address for the file that specifies exactly which folder it is stored in.
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File extension
A code that defines the type of file (eg. letter.doc is a document file called letter)
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Filter
In graphics software, a process that changes the appearance of an image (eg. blur, pixelate or add brush strokes).
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Firewall
Software or hardware that limits the data that can be sent to or from a computer, preventing unauthorised access (eg. hackers)
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Flat file database
A database with just one table of data
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Flash
An applications software used to add animation and interactivity to web pages.
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Forum
An online discussion site where people can hold conversations in the form of posted messages. Sometimes these messages need to be approved by a moderator before they become visible on the site.
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Grooming
A criminal offence where a person gradually builds up a young person’s confidence online. They may then ask the young person to meet them in person.
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GUI
A Graphical User Interface with windows, icons, menus and pointers.
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Hacking
Accessing a computer system you are not authorised to use, with the intent to steal data.
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Hardware printers
The physical objects that make up a computer system, such as monitors and
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Hotspots
Areas of a page that change when the mouse hovers over or clicks on them.
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hosted application
Software held on a remote server, not stored locally, can be used without being installed.
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House style
An agreed set of layout and format rules that might involve logo placement, fonts, colour schemes etc.
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Hyperlinks
Links to other web pages or files, usually accessed by clicking on a word or image.
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Inbox
The main folder that stores the emails you receive.
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Information
Data with meaning.
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Information commisioner
The government department that enforces the Data Protection Act 1998
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Input devices
Any piece of hardware which is used to enter data or content into a computer system such as a mouse, keyboard or scanner.
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Instant messaging
A text form of communication, such as a conversation between people over the Internet that happens in real-time
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ISP
An Internet Service Provider is a company which, usually for a monthly subscription fee, will allow a user to connect to the Internet. They can also provide extra facilities such as remote storage of data files and e-mail accounts for their users.
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Junk mail
E-mails that are not welcome or solicited, they are often sent in bulk and fill up inboxes.
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Key field
Also called the primary key. A field in a table which uniquely identifies each record in that table.
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LAN
Local Area Network. A network connecting computers in the same area/room/building.
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Logging interval
The length of time between recording each measurement.
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Logging period
The total length of time that data is being recorded.
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Marquee
A scrolling text banner on a website, used to grab people’s attention, often to advertise.
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Mail merging
Combining a word processed document (eg. a letter) with a data file (often a list of people’s names and addresses) to create personalised documents (eg. individual letters with names and addresses).
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Menu user interface
An interface where the user chooses from a restricted list of options.
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Microprocessor
A silicon chip that contains a central processing unit, which acts as the “brain” of a computer.
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Mobile device
A portable/light-weight/easy to carry device that can be used almost anywhere.
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Modem
Electronic device used to connect computers via a telephone line. It converts digital data to analog and vice versa.
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Operating system software
This controls and manages the computer. Examples are Window, Mac OS and Linux.
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OCR
Optical character recognition. This can involve scanning a printed document and converting each letter shape to a text character.
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OMR
Optical mark recognition. The data is entered by the user shading in boxes on a sheet (eg. answer sheet for multiple choice examples).
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Passwords
A series of letters and numbers used to gain access to a computer system. They should be at least 7 characters long, contain a combination of numbers and letters and should be kept secret.
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Patch
A piece of code that updates a software package.
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P2P
Peer-to-peer. A website where people upload music and video so that other people can download it, usually illegally.
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Phishing
Sending e-mails that pretend to be from a bank or organisation that handles financial transactions, asking users to click on a link and enter banking information such as passwords. Used to obtain personal details and money.
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PIN
Personal Identification Number. A numeric password often used to access bank accounts.
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Plagiarism
Copying a piece of writing, music or other intellectual property and presenting it as your own work.
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Podcast
Audio or video files downloaded from the Internet to a computer or device, normally updated daily or weekly.
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Portable
Easy to carry. Portable devices do not need to be plugged in because they have their own battery.
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POP
Post Office Protocol is used to retrieve e-mail from a mail server.
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RAM
Random Access Memory.
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Record
All the data about one person or thing. They are made up of fields.
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Recursive
A process that is repetitive, for example where a document is revised, edited and proofread to improve the final product.
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Remote access
The ability for users to log on to a network from locations outside the building where the network is.
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Relative cell refernce
The program does not actually store the address of the cell. Instead it stores the position of the cell relative to the cell containing the formula.
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Relational database
A database containing two or more tables that are linked to each other. This overcomes problems of data redundancy, resulting in fewer entry errors and reduced storage space.
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Resolution
How many dots of colour an image is made up of. The higher the number, the better quality the image.
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RFID tags
Radio Frequency Identification tags eg. security tags attached to goods in shops.
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ROM
Read only memory.
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RSI
Repetitive Strain injury. A condition that causes painful joints in the wrist or fingers. Can be prevented by regular breaks away from the computer, good posture, wrist rests and an ergonomic keyboard.
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RSS Feed
Rich Site Summary – a way of publishing frequently updated sites in a standardised format.
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Signature
A block of text that is added to the end of an email message you send. Useful if you always want your name and contact details to appear on each email as it saves you typing it every time.
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SIM card
Subscriber Identity Module card. A small electronic card inserted into a mobile phone that provides a unique ID for that phone.
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Slide transition
The way in which the presentation changes from one slide to another (eg. next slide flies in from the right after clicking the mouse.
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SMS
Short Message Service. A system for sending text messages on mobile phones.
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SMTP
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. The language used to send mail from your computer to an online mail server.
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Software
The programs or sets of instructions that allows the computer to operate.
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Spam
Also known as junk mail. Emails that are not welcome or solicited and are often sent in bulk. Typically they are of a commercial nature.
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Spam filters
Software that redirects emails that appear to be junk mail into a designated junk mail folder.
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Spyware
Software that is downloaded onto a computer without the owner’s knowledge or permission. It sends data back from the owner’s computer.
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Streaming
Multimedia content is played back to the end user whilst it is still being downloaded.
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URL
Uniform Resource Locator. Another name for a web address.
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User Interface
The way the user interacts with the computer – input and output devices as well as the screen display.
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Validation
Carried out by the software as data is entered. It ensures that data is sensible in the context in which it is being used – eg. range check. (NOT CORRECT.)
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Verification
This means to check the data that you have entered against the original source data. Example of entering your password twice if you change it.
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Video conferencing
Using ICT to hold a virtual meeting with two-way video and audio transmitted in real time.
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Virus
A piece of software that replicates itself, can copy, destroy and corrupt data.
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VoIP
Voice over Internet Protocol, a method of using the Internet to make phone calls.
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WAN
Wide Area Network. A network that covers a geographical area larger than a single building.
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WAP
Wireless Application Protocol. A technology that allows mobile phone users to view phone-friendly versions of websites on a phone screen.
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Web browser
A software application for finding, retrieving and displaying resources on the World Wide Web.
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Wikis
Web pages that allow people who read them to edit and add content to them.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Computer programs that are designed to carry out specific tasks

Back

Applications software

Card 3

Front

A file you can send along with your e-mail.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A picture that you choose to represent yourself online. It is safer than using a real picture of yourself.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Copies of data stored in case the original is stolen or becomes corrupt.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

Mol1108

fabulous!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Imxgen_

10/10 would recommend

Mol1108

totally agree imxgen

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