Ice on land

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What's the name of the last ice age?
Pleistocene
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How long ago did the last glacier period finish?
10 000 years ago
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How much of the Earth's surfaces is currently covered in ice?
10% of the Earth is covered by ice including Greenland and Antarctica
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What three types of evidence are used to identify past temperature changes?
Chemical, fossil and geological evidence
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Define the term accumulation?
The input of snow and ice into the glacier
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What is the zone of ablation?
Where there is more ablation than accumulation on the lower end of the glacier
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What happens when a glacier has a positive glacier budget?
The glacier gets larger and advances down the valley
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Why does a glacier retreat in the summer?
There is more ablation than accumulation because the heat melts the snow and the ice.
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Case study - name, evidence, explanation?
The south cascade glacier USA has been monitored for 80 years, has left a lake behind a lake because the accumulation is less than ablation so there is a negative glacier budget.
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What is rotational slip?
The rotational movement at the top of the glacier which hollows and deepens the mountain into bowl shapes.
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Explain what freeze-thaw weathering is?
When water gets into cracks in the rock and when it freezes it expands causing the rock to crack further, the ice thaws and the crack is bigger.
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What is a corrie?
Caused by rotational slip the glacier deepens the hollow with a lip at the end, when the ice melts a tarn/corrie is left, small circular lake.
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How does a pyramidal peak form?
Formed by three or more glaciers adjacent glaciers erode a mountain.
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Explain how a hanging valley is formed?
Formed by smaller glaciers which flow into the main glacier but they erode less so the valley is left hanging above the glacier trough
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What is bulldozing?
When a glacier pushes loose material in front of it - type of transportation
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Give one difference between in lateral and ground moraine?
Lateral moraine is deposited at the side of the glacier and ground moraine is a thin layer of material deposited over a large area as the glacier melts.
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Where is medial moraine deposited
medial moraine is deposited at the center of a valley where two glaciers have met.
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Describe a drumlin?
egg shaped from above, rounded, steep at upstream end and gently sloping at the downstream end
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How would you identify a pyramidal peak on map?
tightly packed contour lines and which curve away from a central point, linked to aretes
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Describe what a glacier trough looks like on a map?
flat valleys which very steep sides and a small river flowing through, wide, straight and flat
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What does a ribbon lake look like on a map?
A small thin river too small for the valley (glacial trough)
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Give one reason why areas covered in ice are fragile environments?
There is often little light (short growing season) so plants have little time to recover if damaged.
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Give two social impacts of tourism on areas covered in snow and ice?
Increased amount of visitors mean roads and transport system become congested and more job opportunities become available so the locals stay in area instead of moving away
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Describe two environmental impacts of tourism in areas covered in snow and ice?
Glacial land-forms are damaged my walkers and skiers and soil erosion is also increased by tourists trampling in snow.
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Case study - name, economic, social, environmental impacts on area covered in ice/snow, how have they managed tourism?
Chamonix - jobs created (2500 work seasonal per year), jobs available changed from farmers to hotel owner etc, tourists also increase pollution levels (traffic pollution 2002-2004 worse in central Paris). free public transport and avalanche barriers
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Name an industry affected by glacial retreat?
Skiing industry as less ice is available for skiers.
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Give one economic impact of glacial retreat?
HEP stations rely on melt water produced by glaciers so when glacier go they make less power and less money.
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Give one social impact of glacial retreat?
The ice will no longer be available for local recreational use such as skiiing and ice climbing
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How long ago did the last glacier period finish?

Back

10 000 years ago

Card 3

Front

How much of the Earth's surfaces is currently covered in ice?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What three types of evidence are used to identify past temperature changes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Define the term accumulation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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