Cold environments

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  • Cold environments
    • Categories of ice
      • Valley Glacier- A mass of ice, moving slowly, enclosed by valley sides
      • Ice Sheet- A mass of glacial land ice greater than 50,000km
      • Ice Shelf- A thick, floating slab of ice that forms where a glacier or ice flows down a coastline
      • Sea Ice- Frozen ocean water: it forms, grows and melts in the ocean
      • Ice cap- A mass of glacial land ice covering less than 50,000km
    • Why are they so cold?
      • Latitude
        • Poles are angled away from the sun, so winter darkness occurs
      • Altitude
        • Every 100m you go up, the temperature drops a degree
      • Albedo effect
        • The light colour of the ice reflects up to 80% of sunlight
      • Continental effect
        • Oceans are warmer in winter and cooler in summer, so inland areas are cooler in winter and warmer in summer
    • Glaciation
      • Snow that's been compressed into ice, flows downhill through plucking and abrasion
      • Corrie- hollow formed by erosion, with a steep back wall and rock lip
      • Arete- jagged ridge formed by two corries
      • pyramidal peaks- where three corries are formed back to back
      • glacial trough- when glaciers move, they turn v shaped valleys into troughs with ribbon lakes forming after the ice melts
    • Use of cold environments
      • Tourism
        • Ski resorts
          • Habitats destroyed to make way for facilities
        • Seasonal jobs
        • acid rain probability increase due to transport emissions


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