Homeostasis and Response

What is Homeostasis?
Keeping conditions in your body and cells. Happens in response to changes inside and outside the body.
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Why is homeostasis important?
The cells need the right conditions to work properly. The right conditions for enzymes to work.
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What does the control systems do?
Keep the conditions in your body steady.
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What does the control system keep steady?
Body temperature, blood glucose level,water level
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What are theses systems called?
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What is used to control conditions?
Nervous system or hormones
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What are the three main parts made for control systems?
Receptors,coordination centres(brain, spinal cord,pancreas) and effectors
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What happens if the level is too low?
The control system decreases the level.
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What happens if the level is too high?
The control system increases the level.
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What does the receptor do?
detects a stimulus, sends information to the coordination centre.
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What does the coordination centre do?
receives and processes the information.Then organises a response.
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What does the effector do?
Produces a response.Returns the levels to it's optimum level.
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What does the nervous system mean?
That humans can react to their surroundings and coordinate their behaviour.
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What is the central nervous System?
Consists of the brain and spinal cord.Connected to the body by sensory neurones and motor neurones.
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What is the Receptors?
Cells that detect stimuli. Different receptors detect different stimuli.
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What is the Sensory Neurones?
Carry information as electrical impulses from the receptors to the CNS?
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What is the motor Neurones?
Carry electrical impulses from the CNS to effectors.
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What is the effectors?
Respond to electrical impulses and bring about change. Respond in different ways.
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What is the CNS?
A coordination centre.
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What does CNS do?
Receives information from the receptors and then coordinates a response. Response carried out by effectors.
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What is the order of the nervous system?
Stimulus-Receptor-Sensory neurone-CNS-Motor neurone-Effector-Response.
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What is the Synapses?
Where two neurones join together.
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What does the electrical impulse do?
Pass from one neurone to the next by chemicals.
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What does the chemicals do?
Move across the gap. Set off a new electrical impulse in the next neurones.
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What are the reflexes?
Automatic responses. Make them really quick. Stop them getting injured.
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What does the reflex arc do?
The passage of information in a reflex (from receptor to effector)
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Where does the neurones in flex arc go through?
The spinal cord or unconscious part of the brain.
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What are Hormones released by?
Glands. Released directly into the blood.
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What are these glands called?
Endocrine glands, make up endocrine system.
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Where does hormones carry blood too?
Other parts to the body.They only affect particular cells in particular organs(target organs)
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What is the Pituitary Gland?
'Master gland' produces many hormones regulate body conditions. Hormones act on other glands,The glands release hormones that bring about change.
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What is the Thyroid?
Produces thyroxine, the rate of metabolism heart rate and temperature.
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What is the Ovaries (Females only)
Produces oestrogen, involved in the menstrual cycle.
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What is the Adrenal gland?
Produces adrenaline, used to prepare the body for a 'fight or flight' responses.
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What is the Testes (males only)
Produce testosterone,controls puberty and sperm production in males.
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What are pancreas?
Produces insulin, used to regulate the blood glucose level.
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What does Nerves have?
very fast action,act for a very short time,act on every precise area.
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What does hormones have?
Slower action, act for a long time,at in a more general way.
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What does carbohydrates do?
Puts glucose into the blood.
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What happens to the glucose?
Removed from the blood by cells which is used for energy.
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What happens when you exercise?
A lot more glucose is removed from the blood.
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What happens in the blood glucose concentrate?
changes are monitored and controlled by the pancreas.
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What happens if the glucose concentration gets too high?
The pancreas releases the hormone insulin.
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What does insulin cause?
glucose to move into cells.
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Where can glucose be stored?
glycogen. in liver and muscle cells.
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What is type 1 Diabetes?
Pancreas produces little or no insulin.Blood glucose level can rise to a level to kill them. Injections of insulin.
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What is type 2 Diabetes?
Resistant to their own insulin. Cells don't response,blood sugar levels to rise dangerous level. Controlled by carbohydrate-controlled diet or regular exercise.
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What happens at Puberty?
Body releasing sex hormones. Trigger secondary sexual characteristics.
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What does female hormones cause?
eggs to mature. Reproductive hormone is oestrogen- produced by ovaries involved in menstrual cycle.
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What does males hormones produce?
Testosterone, by testes-stimulates sperm production.
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How many stages does the menstrual cycle have?
Four stages
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What is Stage One?
When menstruation starts.The uterus lining breaks down for about four days.
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What is Stage Two?
The uterus lining builds up again from day 4 to 14. A thick spongy layer full of blood vessels. Ready to receive a fertilised egg.
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What is Stage Three?
An egg develops and is released from the ovary at day 14.Called ovulation.
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What is Stage Four?
The wall is then maintained(kept the same) for about 14 until day 28. No fertilised egg has landed on the uterus wall by day 28. Spongy lining starts to break down. The whole cycle starts again.
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What does FSH do?
Causes an egg to mature in one of the ovaries.
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What does the LH do?
Causes the release of an egg (ovulation)
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What does oestrogen and Progesterone do?
These hormones are involved in the growth and maintenance of the uterus lining.
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What is Fertility?
How easy it is for a woman to get pregnant?
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What is contraceptives?
Things that prevent pregnancy.
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What is hormones?
Used in contraceptive- called hormonal contraceptives .
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Where are Oral contraceptives taken?
through the mouth as pills.
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What do they stop?
The hormone FSH from being released. Stops eggs maturing.
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How effective are Oral contraceptives?
Over 99% effective.-bad side effects
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How do some Hormonal contraceptives work?
Slowly releasing progesterone. Stops eggs from maturing or being released from the ovaries.
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What does IUD stop?
Fertilised eggs from implanting in the uterus wall. Some IUD release a hormone.
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What are non-hormonal contraceptives?
Stop the sperm from getting to the egg.
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What are Barrier methods?
One type of non-hormonal contraceptive.
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What are exams of Barrier Methods?
Condom and Diaphragm.
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What are more Drastic ways to avoid pregnancy?
Sterilisation, Natural Methods and Abstinence.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Why is homeostasis important?


The cells need the right conditions to work properly. The right conditions for enzymes to work.

Card 3


What does the control systems do?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What does the control system keep steady?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are theses systems called?


Preview of the front of card 5
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