Home Economics - Food & Nutrition CHAPTER 1

  • Created by: taryn.
  • Created on: 08-05-17 19:46
What are nutrients?
Chemical compounds which form molecules in food
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What is a balanced diet?
The CORRECT amounts of ALL nutrients
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What is malnutrition?
Lack of particular nutrients/too much of wrong kind of nutrient
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What is an individual nutritional requirement...and what are the factors which affect them?
The amount of nutrients needed to maintain good health based on age, gender, PAL, pregnancy, babies and illness/recovery
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What are the macro-nutrients?
Proteins, Carbs and Fats
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Why do we need proteins?
Growth, repair and maintenance
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Excess protein is converted into ... and stored in the liver as ... which can be used as a source of energy.
Excess protein is converted into GLUCOSE and stored in the liver as GLYCOGEN which can be used as a source of energy.
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What are proteins made up of?
Long chains of AMINO ACIDS
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Approx, how many known amino acids are there...how many are essential for children and how many for adults? And what are these important amino acids called?
Approx, 22 known amino acids, 10 essential for children, 8 essential for adults. These are called INDEFENSIBLE AMINO ACIDS.
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What are High Biological Proteins (HBV)?
ANIMAL proteins that contain ALL of the indispensable amino acids
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What are Low Biological Proteins (LBV)?
VEGETABLE proteins that LACK one or more of the indispensable amino acids
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What is protein complementation?...give an example
Eating different proteins together giving us a range of amino acids. (hummus and pitta bread)
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What are novel proteins?
Grown from micro-organisms which produce mycroprotein - e.g Quorn
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Approximately...how much protein do females need a day?
45g
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Approximately...how much protein do males need a day?
55g
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Approximately...how much protein do pregnant women need a day?
51g
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Approximately...how much protein do breastfeeding women need a day?
56g
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Why do we need fats?
Provide the body with energy.
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What are the fat-soluble vitamins?
A,D,E,K
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Where do saturated fatty acids come from and what are they made from?
ANIMAL food sources - NO double bonds
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Where do unsaturated fatty acids come from and what are they made from?
VEGETABLE sources - have two or more DOUBLE BONDS
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What are ways of cutting down on saturated fats?
Reduce amount in fried foods, cut visible fat off, eat less red meat, eat low fat spread, cheese and yoghurts, use oil spray, buy lean meat, reduce fat content in baking
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Why do we need carbohydrates?
Provide energy
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Why are carbohydrates good?
Cheapest source of energy and easily digested.
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What is protein sparing?
Eating carbohydrates with proteins to allow the proteins to be used for growth and repair rather than energy.
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What percentage of total energy intake should be from Carbohydrates...and how many of these from sugars?
50%, 11% from sugars
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What is the other name for Dietary fibre?
Non-Starch Polysaccharide (NSP)
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What is NSP...and what is it essential for?
The INDIGESTIBLE FIBROUS STRUCTURE of plants. Essential for elimination of waste from large intestine
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Examples of Intrinsic Sugars...
They form part of cell structure - fructose (honey/fruit), glucose (fruits and veg), Galactose (milk), lactose (milk)
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What are extrinsic sugars?..examples...
Not part of the cell structure of plants - added to provide sweetness ad quick source of energy. E.g - sucrose, honey
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Micro-nutrients...SEE SEPARATE SHEET :-)
SEE SEPARATE SHEET :-)
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What are the antioxidant vitamins and what do they do?
A, C and E - they protect body cells from damage and reduce risk of cancer and heart disease.
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What other vitamin in needed in order to absorb calcium?
Vit D
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What helps the absorption of iron?
Vit C
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How much iron is recommended for a man per day?
8.7mg
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How much iron is recommended for a woman per day?
14.8mg
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What is DRV?
Dietary Reference Value - overall term used for EAR, LRNI and RNI
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What is EAR?
Estimated average requirement - for any group of people
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What is RNI?
Reference Nutrient Intake - An amount of nutrient that is enough for approx 97% of a pop. group
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LRNI?
Lower Reference Nutrient intake - amount of nutrient needed for a few people in a pop. group who have low needs
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What is Safe Intake?
lack of evidence regarding how much of nutrient is needed by the bdy
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What is BMR?
Basal Metabolic Rate - rate at which body uses energy when it is warm and resting
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What is a low GI (Glycemic Index) Food?
Converted into glucose slowly - wholegrain products
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What is a high GI (Glycemic Index) Food?
quick releasing energy - choc bar
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What % of body is made up of water?
70%
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What does water do in the diet?
Prevents dehydration, for body processes - digestion, regulation of body temp (sweating), and body fluids such as sweat, urine and blood
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a balanced diet?

Back

The CORRECT amounts of ALL nutrients

Card 3

Front

What is malnutrition?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is an individual nutritional requirement...and what are the factors which affect them?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the macro-nutrients?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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