# Heuristics

Social Cognition

Biases

Probability

Stereotypes

Framing

Base Rates

Halo Effect

Tversky & Kahneman. Fiske & Taylor (2008)

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A judgement of how relevant A is to B; high relevance yield high estimates that A originates from B.
Representativeness H
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The estimate of how frequently or likely is a given instance or occurrence, based on how easily or quickly an association or examples come to mind
Availability H
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The ease with which a hypothetical scenario can be constructed
Simulation H
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The process of estimating some value by starting with some initial value and then adjusting it to the new instance.
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Why do people use heuristics?
They reduce complex problem solving to simpler judgemental operations, to meet the pressing demands of the environment.
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Positives of using heuristics?
Quick and typically produce correct/efficient results/answers, allows decisions to be made in uncertain times, and they save online capacity for other more significant judgements.
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Negatives of using heuristics?
Lead to stereotypes, ignore valuable data and probabilities, ignore base rate info, poor decisions if characterising info is based on pre-existent wrong theory
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The 'if only' way of assessing situations (T&K, 1982)
Counterfactual Reasoning
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T&K (1981) Treatment A was chosen by ??? of participants when it was presented with positive framing ("saves 200 lives") dropping to only ??? when the same choice was presented with negative framing ("400 people will die").
72% and 22%
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What are the two components of Prospect Theory? (T&K, 1979
Frame of Reference & Subjective Value Function
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What does Prospect Theory describe?
the decision process involved when people make comparisons between options.
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What are the three steps of the inference process?
Gathering information, Deciding what info to use, and putting the info together.
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What is the Illusory Correlation?
- When a relationship between two variables is expected, people often OVERESTIMATE the degree of relationship that exists.
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Everyday bias is surprisingly?
Subtle, Automatic, and Unintentional
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Category activation- People activate the most ACCESSIBLE categories, Using stereotypes frees mental capacit
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What is the Ultimate Attribution Error?
When people hold more positive stereotypes of their own group than of rival groups
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What are the three components of Kelly's covariation model of attribution? And which one are people least sensitive to?
Distinctiveness, Consistency, and Consensus (least sensitive to)
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What are the three dimensions of Kelley's (1973) Covariation model of Attribution
Distinctiveness, Consistency, Consensus
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

The estimate of how frequently or likely is a given instance or occurrence, based on how easily or quickly an association or examples come to mind

Availability H

### Card 3

#### Front

The ease with which a hypothetical scenario can be constructed

### Card 4

#### Front

The process of estimating some value by starting with some initial value and then adjusting it to the new instance.

### Card 5

#### Front

Why do people use heuristics?