Biases (I)

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Concepts

  • Heuristics - enable us to make judgements based on partial information
  • Availability Heuristic - we make judgements of probability based on what comes to mind first e.g. judged lethality, negative views on immigrant crisis
  • Recognition Heuristic - only recognising half the stimulus suggests it is more valuable in relation to the criterion, partial ignorance can be exploited
  • Representativeness Heuristic - we make single comparisons based on similarity, conjunction fallacy, statistics are ignored, only appearence matters
  • Illusory Correlations - we make connections between stimuli that do not exist, combining distinctive stimuli
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Evidence

  • Lichtenstien (1978) - judged lethality, we think the probability of dying in a car accident is higher than that of from a stroke because we hear more frequently about them
  • Ayton et al (2011) - when asked to guess the resutls of FA cup third round matches, people from Turkey were just as accurate as English people (around 60%)
  • Pohl (2011) - knowing half the stimuli may be better
  • Risen et al (2007) - participants shown identical video of caucasion person and south Asian person, when asked to describe the behaviour, south Asians were described as 'pushy' and caucasians were not
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