Henry VIII - Religion

Between 1513-1515 what positions did Wolsey succeed?
Dean of York, Bishop of Tournai (after Battle of Spurs) and Cardinal. Henry also supported him, persuading Pope Leo X to make him Cardinal + Papal Legate which enabled him to stop reform of Church in England.
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How was anti-protestantism illustrated from Wolsey and also Henry in his earlier reign?
A cardinal Wolsey persuaded Henry to oppose spread of Lutherism, resulting in burning of books in London from 1521. Promoted Henry's anti-Lutherism book, ensuring Pope declared Henry 'Defender of the Faith'. Protestant sympathisers were arrested.
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What was Henry's opposition to reform religion?
Henry opposed in his book 'Henry opposed reformation in his book 'Defender of the Seven Sacraments' that supported Pope+declared Henry as "Defender of the Faith".
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When did Henry change, and begin to support the reformation of religion?
Anne Boleyn made H change, with Tyndale's illegal book 'Obedience of the Christian Man' promoting idea of King having authority over subjects souls+body, Anne brought it from France. Also Crom travel through France influenced new ideas away from Pope
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What and why was pressure put on the Clergy?
Between 1529-33 H pressurised clergy to get him a divorce by changing 15 clergy with Praemunire (support of Pope over King), forcing them to see him as Supreme Head of Church, +Supplication against the Ordinaries (punished corrupt clergy).
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What and why was pressure put on the Pope?
H pressurised Pope by Act of Parliament preventing Agnates (clergy tax) to be paid to Pope, replacement of dead traditional Archbishop Warham with reforming Prot Cranmer, Act in Restraints of Appeals (denying subjects right to appeal to Pope).
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What was the Royal Supremacy Act and when was it? Also what was it supported by?
1534, suggested King always held right to be Head of Church, but now implemented it. Supported with Treason Act that made denial of royal supremacy punishable by death.
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When Anne Boleyn had a girl and was executed for infidelity charges in 1536 did that end the Protestant reform?
No it did not as Jane Seymour comes from a Protestant family.
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Explain Henry's doctrinal reform (religious teachings) (1)
Cromwell (as Vicar General of Church) introduced Ten Articles of Faith 1536 to 'establish Christian quietness+unity' (Lutheran ideas including gaining salvation by faith, but also Catholic views such as the wording of the Eucharist.
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Explain Henry's doctrinal reform (religious teachings) (2)
Also Bishop's Book of 1537 attacked abuses+superstitions associated with Church+encouraged Protestant reform,+first English (Tyndale) Bible published-enforced into every church by Cramner 1538. Had English translation+mass accessibility.
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Explain the return to catholicism
Pol influence of Cath H fam led by Duke of Norfolk was responsible for Parlia accepting the more Cath 6 Articles+marriage to Cath H 1540. Protestant reforming bishops=Latimer+Shaxton resigned. Archbishop Cranmer had to exile wife (clerical celibacy).
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What are the four reasons for closing the monasteries?
1) Huge wealth identified in 1535 by Crom Value of Church survey (x2 H income). 2) Provide crown with extensive land, reward nobles for support. 3) Monat's could be centre of opposition. 4) Need for monks to pray for souls was against Prot teachings.
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In 1500 how many religious houses were there and what happened by 1540?
There were 825 religious houses, 500 of which monasteries. But by 1540, all closed.
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What was Cromwell's extra survey of 1535?
Encouraged inspectors to embellish charges of corruption and immorality as an excuse to close monasteries.
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In 1539 what Act closed the remaining monasteries?
Act of the Dissolution of Large Monasteries closed the remaining of the monasteries.
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What of the Kingdom's wealth did the dissolution of monasteries, what did it fund, but what weakened it?
Made up 10% of the Kingdom's wealth in 1530's, which would finance foreign policy, but inflation made value less.
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What was the court opposition with Sir Thomas More?
Thomas More (Chanc 1529-1532) opposed H divorce+Succession Act that made Mary illegitimate. He was arrested by Cromwell for allegedly not accepting H as Head of Church and executed.
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What was the court opposition with the Argonese faction?
Argonese faction sympathetic to Cath of A plight. Influential members included Henry Courtenay as member of Privy Council+Henry Guildford Comptroller of King's Householder.
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What was the court opposition with the Boleyn faction?
After Cath of Argon divorce, Boleyn faction more powerful, so hoped Mary would be named heir, but Act of Succession (1536) prevented this, forcing Courtenay to support Reginald Pole (Yorkist) which resulted in execution.
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What was the clergy opposition with Bishop Fisher of Rochester?
Like More, he opposed Henry's treatment of Cath+refused to swear oath accepting the divorce. Imprisoned, but Pope intervened+made Fisher a Cardinal (even though Fisher had no desire), so Henry tried him for treason+executed him.
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What was the clergy opposition with Nun Elizabeth Barton?
She had prophetic visions that showed Henry's demise (death) if he divorced Catherine. Links were found between her+imprisoned More, so Cromwell made her publicly renounce her visions+executed her.
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What was the clergy opposition with the Carthusian order?
Monks of London refused to accept divorce from Rome. Government could not permit this defiance, so they were tried against Treason Act+18 monks executed.
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What was the country opposition with Pilgrimage of Grace?
In 1536 Pil of Grace started when townspeople of Lough in Lincolnshire feared that Crom was to ***** their land+monastery whilst increasing taxes. Rebellion amassed 40,000 protestors (pilgrims) led by Robert Aske.
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In the Pilgrimage of Grace, what did they demand for and what did it lead to?
Asked for removal of Crom + repeal of Statute of Uses (inheritance tax). Henry decided to grant a pardon+consider demands. New rebellions in 1537 gave H excuse to execute rebel leaders.
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In 1538 what did Pope Paul III do to Henry VIII?
He excommunicated Henry VIII, meaning that he stopped him from receiving sacraments, thus removing them from God+salvation.
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What happened to religion when Henry died in 1547? (1)
Religious stalemate (no one can win) occurred. Cath success: 6 Articles (1539). Execution of Prot leaning Crom (1540) for failure to promote 6 Articles, failed marriage (Anne of C)+desiring further Prot changes.
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What happened to religion when Henry died in 1547? (2)
Prot success: Prot persecuted (1540-47) but not extinguished. Cranmer remained Archbishop even after being accused of Prot heresy (1543). Bibles (1539 Great Bible) still available in English+limited reforms against worship of saints.
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What happened to religion when Henry died in 1547? (3)
Also marriage to Prot Cath Parr influence heirs Edward+Elizabeth in Prot teachings (scholars Coxe+Cheke).
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Explain the 6 Articles (1539)
Beliefs about Eucharist (transubstantiation) - body+blood of Christ at consecration. 7 Sacraments of Cath Church essential for salvation. Priest celibacy (re-imposed in 1540) - abstaining from marriage.
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Explain the 10 Articles (1536)
Published by Cranmer+became the first guidelines of the Church of England as it became independent. Established Christian 'quietness and unity’. Lutheran ideas=gaining salvation by faith. But also Catholic views=wording of the Eucharist.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How was anti-protestantism illustrated from Wolsey and also Henry in his earlier reign?

Back

A cardinal Wolsey persuaded Henry to oppose spread of Lutherism, resulting in burning of books in London from 1521. Promoted Henry's anti-Lutherism book, ensuring Pope declared Henry 'Defender of the Faith'. Protestant sympathisers were arrested.

Card 3

Front

What was Henry's opposition to reform religion?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

When did Henry change, and begin to support the reformation of religion?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What and why was pressure put on the Clergy?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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